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Heather Myers, Mary Poletti and Robert J. Butler

Context:

The Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ) is a unique movement test where individuals perform at the limits of their stability, requiring the coordination of balance, proprioception, range of motion, and stabilization. It is not yet clear if performance on the YBT-UQ differs between sports with dissimilar emphasis on upper-extremity performance.

Objective:

To compare performance on the YBT-UQ between wrestlers, whose sport requires some degree of closed-chain activity, and baseball players, whose sport is primarily open kinetic chain in nature.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

High school preparticipation physical assessment.

Participants:

24 healthy high school male wrestlers (mean age 16.12 ± 1.24 y) and 24 healthy high school male baseball players (mean age 15.79 ± 1.25 y).

Interventions:

All subjects performed the YBT-UQ, which requires reaching in 3 directions while maintaining a push-up position.

Main Outcome Measures:

The variables of interest include the maximum reach in each direction, as well as the composite score. In addition, asymmetries between limbs for each reach direction were compared.

Results:

Wrestlers performed significantly better than baseball players in the medial direction, inferolateral direction, and in composite scores. In the medial direction, wrestlers exhibited greater scores (P < .01) on both left and right limbs, 10.5 ± 10.2%LL and 9.95 ± 10.2%LL, respectively. Significant differences (P < .01) were also observed in the inferolateral direction, with a difference of 11.3 ± 12.0%LL on the left and 8.7 ± 11.0%LL on the right. Composite scores were higher (P < .01) for the wrestlers, with a difference of 7.0% on the left and 7.1% on the right.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that wrestlers perform better on the YBT-UQ than baseball players. The findings may suggest sport-specific normative data for the YBT-UQ in high school athletes.

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Kyle B. Kiesel, Robert J. Butler and Philip J. Plisky

Context:

Previous injury is the strongest risk factor for future injury in sports. It has been proposed that motor-control changes such as movement limitation and asymmetry associated with injury and pain may be perpetuated as part of an individual's movement strategy. Motor control of fundamental 1-×-body-weight tasks can reliably and efficiently be measured in the field.

Objective:

To determine whether the motor control of fundamental movement patterns and pattern asymmetry have a relationship with time-loss injury over the course of the preseason in professional football.

Design:

Injury-risk study.

Setting:

American professional football facilities.

Participants:

238 American professional football players.

Intervention:

To measure the motor control of 1-×-body-weight fundamental movement patterns, Functional Movement Screen scores were obtained before the start of training camp. The previously established cutoff score of ≤14 and the presence of any asymmetries on the FMS were examined using relative risk to determine if a relationship exists with time-loss injury.

Main Outcome Measure:

Time-loss musculoskeletal injury defined as any time loss from practice or competition due to musculoskeletal injury.

Results:

Players who scored ≤14 exhibited a relative risk of 1.87 (CI95 1.20–2.96). Similarly, players with at least 1 asymmetry displayed a relative risk of 1.80 (CI95 1.11–2.74). The combination of scoring below the threshold and exhibiting a movement asymmetry was highly specific for injury, with a specificity of .87 (CI95 .84–.90).

Conclusion:

The results of this study suggest that fundamental movement patterns and pattern asymmetry are identifiable risk factors for time-loss injury during the preseason in professional football players.

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Brett Aefsky, Niles Fleet, Heather Myers and Robert J. Butler

Context:

Currently, hip-rotation range of motion (ROM) is clinically measured in an open kinetic chain in either seated or prone position using passive or active ROM. However, during activities of daily living and during sports participation the hip must be able to rotate in a loaded position, and there is no standard measurement for this.

Objective:

To determine if a novel method for measuring hip rotation in weight bearing will result in good to very good reliability as demonstrated by an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of >.80 and to investigate if weight-bearing hip measurements will result in significantly reduced hip ROM compared with non-weight-bearing methods.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Outpatient sports physical therapy clinic.

Participants:

20 healthy participants (10 men, 10 women) recruited for hip-rotation measurements.

Methods:

Three trials of both internal and external rotation were measured in sitting, prone, and weight bearing. Two therapists independently measured each participant on the same day. The participants returned the following day to repeat the same measurements with the same 2 therapists.

Main Outcome Measures:

Degrees of hip internal and external rotation measured in prone, sitting, and loaded positions.

Results:

In general, the measurement of hip ROM across the different conditions was reliable. The intrarater reliability was .67–.95, while interrater reliability was .59–.96. Interrater reliability was improved when values were averaged across the measures (.75–.97). ICCs for active loaded ROM were .67–.81, while interrater ICCs were .53–.87. In general, prone hip ROM was greater than supine and supine was greater than loaded.

Conclusions:

Loaded hip rotation can be measured in a clinical setting with moderate to good reliability. The rotation ROM of a loaded hip can be significantly decreased compared with unloaded motion.

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Garrett S. Bullock, Taylor Chapman, Thomas Joyce, Robert Prengle, Taylor Stern and Robert J. Butler

Context: Dominican Republic (DR) players have different training norms, which can affect their resiliency and performance. The variance among DR players’ training regimens may be influenced by the degree of training incorporating fundamental movement patterns. Objective: To examine differences in fundamental movement patterns in United States (US)–born versus DR-born professional baseball players. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting: Professional baseball athletic training room. Participants: One hundred forty-two players (76 DR-born and 66 US-born) who were recently selected by a Major League Baseball team. Intervention: Subjects completed the Functional Movement Screen using the standardized 7 movement tests and the 3 isolated clearing tests. Main Outcome Measures: The primary variables studied were composite score, left and right asymmetry, and individual movement standard scores. Two-way chi-squared analysis was utilized for the statistical analysis with statistical significance being identified at P < .05. Results: DR players had a larger number of 1s (7.8% vs 3.0%) and 3s (10.5% vs 1.5%) on the right-sided hurdle step and a greater percentage of 3s (82.8% vs 60.6%) on right-sided shoulder mobility. US players had a larger percentage of 3s (33.3% vs 13.4%) and a lower percentage of 1s (2.2% vs 15.1%) on the active straight leg raise and a greater percentage of passable scores (≥2; 99.5% vs 65.8%) on the trunk stability push-up. Conclusion: This study suggests that fundamental movement competency differs between US- and DR-born professional baseball players. Based on these movement competency differences, a player’s country of origin may be taken into account to create an effective training program.