The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in theory, the clubhead speed at impact could be increased by an optimally timed wrist torque, without jeopardizing the desired club position at impact. A 2-D, three-segment model comprising torso, left arm, and golfclub was used to model the downward phase of the golf swing. Torque generators that adhered to the activation and force-velocity properties of muscle were inserted at the proximal end of each segment. Separate simulations were performed, with the wrist joint generator enabled then disabled. The results from these simulations showed that significant gains in clubhead speed (≈9 %) could be achieved if an active wrist torque was applied to the club during the latter stages of the downswing. For a swing that produced a clubhead speed of 44 m/s (≈99 mph), the optimal timing for the activation of wrist torque occurred when the arm segment was approximately 30° below a horizontal line through the shoulder joint. The optimal activation time for the joint generators was very much dependant on the shape of the torque profiles. The optimization process confirmed that maximum clubhead speed was achieved when the torque generators commenced in sequential order from proximal to distal.
Eric J. Sprigings and Robert J. Neal
David A. Aitken and Robert J. Neal
A system was developed to quantify the on-water forces, impulse, and power generated by a kayak paddlet. The system is lightweight (<1 kg), portable (i.e., it can be used in single [Kl], double [K2], and fours [K4] boats), and does not affect the integrity of either the kayak paddle or the boat. Changes in the strain on the kayak paddle were measured by force transducers attached to the shaft of the paddle, and these signals were then recorded on an FM tape recorder located in the boat. The data were then analyzed by the Kayak Data Acquisition and Analysis System software which graphically presented the paddlers' force time curve as well as a printed tabular report on the paddlers' average force, impulse, work, power, and the instantaneous boat velocity.
Robert J. Neal and Barry D. Wilson
Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics for a double pendulum model golf swing were determined for 6 subjects, who were filmed by two phase-locked Photosonics cameras. The film was digitally analyzed. Abdel-Aziz and Karara's (1971) algorithm was used to determine three-dimensional spatial coordinates for the segment endpoints. Linear kinematic and kinetic data showed similarities with previous studies. The orientation of the resultant joint force at the wrists was in the direction of motion of the club center of gravity for most of the downswing. Such an orientation of the force vector would tend to prevent wrist uncocking. Indeterminate peak angular velocities for rotations about the X axis were reported. However, these peaks were due to computational instabilities that occurred when the club was perpendicular to the YZ plane. Furthermore, the motion of the club during the downswing was found to be nonplanar. Wrist uncocking appeared to be associated with the resultant joint torque and not the resultant joint force at the wrists. Torques reported in this study were consistent with those reported by Vaughan (1981).