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Factors Leading to Discrepancies in Accumulated Physical Activity During School Hours in Elementary School Students

Riley Galloway, Robert Booker, and Scott Owens

Purpose: Current in-school physical activity (PA) policies lack regulation, which testifies to the urgency of monitoring in-school moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). This study quantifies the demographical differences of in-school PA among elementary students. Methods: Fourth-grade students wore accelerometers during school for 1 week. The teachers logged information for PA setting and duration of opportunity. Results: The accelerometry data (N = 148) showed alarming results in the lack of MVPA during in-school PA opportunity times. Significant sex differences showed boys to accumulate more minutes MVPA per day in recess than girls (7.62 ± 5.87 and 5.19 ± 3.03, respectively). Racial differences showed that non-White students accumulated significantly more minutes of MVPA per week during the school day than White students (30.82 ± 19.09 and 23.44 ± 18.41, respectively). Conclusions: The students fell short of the recommended 30 min of MVPA per day during school hours, as advised by a state mandate. Significant differences were seen in PA levels across sex and race, supporting the need for enhanced attention to influential factors on PA engagement.

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Living and Embracing Intersectionality in Sport: Introduction to the Special Issue Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

Hannah Bennett, Robert Owens, and Tanya Prewitt-White

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Perfectionism and the ‘Yips’: An Initial Investigation

Ross Roberts, Mike Rotheram, Ian Maynard, Owen Thomas, and Tim Woodman

The present investigation examined whether perfectionism might predict whether an athlete would suffer from the ‘yips’ (a long term movement disorder consisting of involuntary movements that affects the execution of motor skills). A sample of ‘yips’-affected individuals from golf, cricket, and darts as well as a sport-matched sample of non ’yips’-affected athletes completed the shortened version of Frost, Marten, Lahart, and Rosenblate’s (1990) multidimensional perfectionism scale (FMPS). Results revealed that three aspects of perfectionism (personal standards, organization, and concern over mistakes) were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from the ‘yips’, indicating that ‘yips’ sufferers had an unhealthy perfectionism profile. The results highlight perfectionism as a possible antecedent of the ‘yips’ experience within sport.

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Relationship Among Competitive State Anxiety, Ability, and Golf Performance

David Cook, Bruce Gansneder, Robert Rotella, Christopher Malone, Linda Bunker, and DeDe Owens

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Mood and Cycling Performance in Response to Three Weeks of High-Intensity, Short-Duration Overtraining, and a Two-Week Taper

Bonnie G. Berger, Robert W. Motl, Brian D. Butki, David T. Martin, John G. Wilkinson, and David R. Owen

This study examined changes in mood and performance in response to high-intensity, short-duration overtraining and a subsequent taper. Pursuit cyclists (N = 8) at the United States Olympic Training Center completed the POMS and simulated 4-km pursuit performance tests throughout a six-week period. The six-week period included a baseline week, three weeks of overtraining that consisted primarily of high-intensity interval training, and a two-week taper. Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) scores displayed a quadratic polynomial effect across the three weeks of overtraining (p < .01), with the highest TMD scores occurring in the second week. Average TMD scores were lower during the taper than at baseline (p < .02) and lower at taper than overtraining (p < .0005). Cycling performance (pursuit time and average power output) improved during the three weeks of overtraining; additional improvements were observed during the taper. There were no significant correlations between TMD and performance. However, pursuit time, average power output, and mood disturbance scores were at optimal levels throughout the taper period. These findings suggest that high-intensity, short-duration overtraining may not result in an overtraining syndrome in 4-km pursuit cyclists.