Aaron Beighle and Robert P. Pangrazi
The primary purpose of this study was to describe the association between activity time and step counts in children.
Subjects were 590 students (334 girls, 256 boys) with each gender having a mean age of 9.2 ± 1.8 y. All subjects wore the Walk4Life 2505 pedometer for four consecutive weekdays. This pedometer simultaneously measures both step counts and activity time.
Boys accumulated significantly more minutes of activity time/day (140.9 ± 39.6 vs. 126.3 ± 38.1), steps/day (13,348 ± 4131 vs. 11,702 ± 3923), and steps per min (93.99 ± 5.8 vs. 91.85 ± 5.8) than girls (P < 0.001) Steps/day was a significant predictor of activity time/day (P < 0.0001).
Boys accumulate more steps per day and more activity time per day than girls. There is a strong association between steps per day and activity time in children. Daily steps per minute as a measure of free living physical activity in children is explored
Susan D. Vincent and Robert P. Pangrazi
Reactivity is defined as a change in normal activity patterns when people are aware that their activity levels are being monitored. This study investigated reactivity in elementary school children. The step counts of forty-eight participants in second, fourth and sixth grades were monitored with sealed pedometers for eight days. A factorial repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences among days for all participants (F (7,294) = 1.25, p = .279) and no interactions among Sex, Grade, and Day. There is no reactivity in children monitored with a sealed pedometer. Intraclass correlations found that three to four days of monitoring are needed to determine habitual activity levels with a coefficient alpha level of .70 and five days of monitoring are needed to obtain a .80 coefficient alpha. This study demonstrates that there appears to be no reactivity period when sealed pedometers are used to measure physical activity.
Michael P. Ernst and Robert P. Pangrazi
The proliferation of research on physical activity paints a clear picture regarding the health benefits of increasing levels of physical activity. In the present study, the efficacy of a school-based physical activity intervention (Promoting Lifetime Activity for Youth) was examined. Twenty-eight 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade elementary school teachers and their students participated in this study. Treatment group classes received the P.L.A.Y. intervention. Control group classes received a placebo. Participants completed 2 questionnaires 3 times during the study. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for all analyses. Results indicate that the treatment group significantly increased physical activity levels. Control group classes did not significantly increase activity levels or attraction to activity.
Susan D. Vincent and Robert P. Pangrazi
Research has suggested a trend of decreasing activity with age necessitating a renewed emphasis on promoting physical activity for children. The purpose of this study was to assess current physical activity levels of children and to establish initial standards for comparison in determining appropriate activity levels of children based on pedometer counts. Children, 6–12 years old (N = 711), wore sealed pedometers for 4 consecutive days. Mean step counts ranged from 10,479–11,274 and 12300–13989 for girls and boys respectively. Factorial ANOVA found a significant difference between sex (F = 90.16, p < .01) but not among age (F = 0.78, p = .587). Great individual variability existed among children of the same sex. Further analysis found significant differences among children of the same sex above the 80th percentile and below the 20th percentile. A reasonable activity standard might be approximately 11,000 and 13,000 steps per day for girls and boys respectively, although further discussion of this is warranted. The descriptive nature of this study provides insights into the activity patterns of children and the mean step counts for boys and girls at each age can serve as a preliminary guide for determining meaningful activity levels for children based on pedometer counts.
Charles B. Corbin, Robert P. Pangrazi, and Gregory J. Welk
Charles B. Corbin, Robert P. Pangrazi, and Guy C. Le Masurier
Susan Vincent Graser, Robert P. Pangrazi, and William J. Vincent
The purpose was to determine if waist placement of the pedometer effected accuracy in normal, overweight, and obese children, when attaching the pedometer to the waistband or a belt.
Seventy-seven children (ages 10-12 y) wore five pedometers on the waistband of their pants and a belt at the following placements: navel (NV), anterior midline of the right thigh (AMT), right side (RS), posterior midline of the right thigh (PMT), and middle of the back (MB). Participants walked 100 steps on a treadmill at 80 m · min−1.
The RS, PMT, and MB sites on the waistband and the AMT and RS sites on the belt produced the least error.
Of these sites the RS placement is recommended because of the ease of reading the pedometer during activity. Using a belt did not significantly improve accuracy except for normal weight groups at the NV placement site.
Douglas N. Hastad, Jeffrey O. Segrave, Robert Pangrazi, and Gene Petersen
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between interscholastic athletic participation and delinquency, little attention has been given to younger populations. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between youth sport participation and deviant behavior among elementary school children. The study ascertained deviancy among youth sport participants and nonparticipants, and compared the profiles of youth sport participants and deviants on a selected cluster of eight sociopsychological variables. Of a total sample of 381 sixth-grade students, 278 (146 boys and 132 girls) were classified as youth sport participants. Overall, the results indicated a negative association between youth sport participation and deviancy. Although the study showed some similarities in the profiles of youth sport participants and deviants, important distinctions were found regarding the variables delinquent associates, peer status, and personal values.
Gary S. Krahenbuhl, Robert P. Pangrazi, William J. Stone, Don W. Morgan, and Tracy Williams
Untrained 6- to 8-year-old children (N = 80) served as subjects in a cross sectional study of the fractional utilization of maximal aerobic power during submaximal running. Using the open-circuit method, the absolute oxygen demands of submaximal running were found to increase with age. When expressed relative to body weight, oxygen demands of submaximal running showed no statistically significant changes over the 3-year span. VO2max increased 36.2%, which was proportionally greater than the percentage increase for either body weight (28.4%) or the absolute oxygen demands of submaximal running (22.9%). Thus, during the span of years studied there was a significant reduction in the fractional utilization of maximal aerobic power required to run at a fixed submaximal speed.