Attitudes toward six subdomains of physical activity were assessed across Grades 4 to 6 for a multiple longitudinal sample consisting of 58 boys and 56 girls. The children's attitudes toward physical activity (CATPA) were generally positive for both sexes; and consistent with previous research, the girls showed more favorable attitudes toward the aesthetic subdomain than the boys. However, the boys evidenced significantly more positive attitudes toward physical activity as the pursuit of vertigo and as catharsis. Neither the among-grade comparisons nor sex-by-grade comparisons attained statistical significance, indicating stability in group attitude scores. However, correlational analyses revealed the lack of stability of CATPA within individuals across the grades studied. Factor analysis provided further evidence negating the assumption of CATPA as an enduring behavioral disposition. The findings are discussed in relation to previous cross-sectional studies, and implications are derived for future research.
Frank L. Smoll and Robert W. Schutz
Robert W. Schutz, Frank L. Smoll, and Terry M. Wood
Simon and Smoll's (1974) inventory for assessing children's attitudes toward physical activity (CATPA) has been used in numerous studies of children's at-titudinal dispositions and their relationships to a variety of situational and dispositional variables. Recent research revealing low attitude-behavior relationships and instability across time has raised questions about the psychometric properties of the CATPA inventory. The purpose of this research was to psychometrically analyze the six attitude subdomains of this semantic differential inventory and derive recommendations for its modification. The first of three studies reported herein included a four-phase analysis of the CATPA scores of 1,752 children, the results of which indicated that (a) three of the original eight bipolar adjectives were not good discriminators, (b) internal consistencies were high and were not improved by reciprocal average reweighting, and (c) a seven-factor structure emerged, differing from the underlying six-factor theoretical model. In Study 2 a revised CATPA inventory was administered to 1,895 boys and girls. The findings supported the inventory revisions and suggested the necessity for dichotomizing one of the six original attitude sub-domains. Study 3 incorporated the derived rescoring procedures in the reanalysis of earlier attitudinal investigations. Results revealed that modifying the scales neither changed the nature or strength of attitude-behavior relationships nor did it affect the intraindividual stability of CATPA over a period of time. The revised CATPA inventory was deemed to be an improvement over the original instrument because of its superior psychometric characteristics and reduced length, thereby making it more efficient for administrative purposes.
Ronald E. Smith, Robert W. Schutz, Frank L. Smoll, and J.T. Ptacek
Confirmatory factor analysis was used as the basis for a new form of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI). The ACSI-28 contains seven sport-specific subscales: Coping With Adversity, Peaking Under Pressure, Goal Setting/Mental Preparation, Concentration, Freedom From Worry, Confidence and Achievement Motivation, and Coachability. The scales can be summed to yield a Personal Coping Resources score, which is assumed to reflect a multifaceted psychological skills construct. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the factorial validity of the ACSI-28, as the seven subscales conform well to the underlying factor structure for both male and female athletes. Psychometric characteristics are described, and preliminary evidence for construct and predictive validity is presented.