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Profile of a Winner: Advanced Mental Training for Athletes

Robin S. Vealey

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Advances in Pediatric Sport Science, Volume 2: Behavioral Issues

Robin S. Vealey

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Transforming the Silence on Lesbians in Sport: Suggested Directions for Theory and Research in Sport Psychology

Robin S. Vealey

The provocative and dynamic interrelationships between the social organization of sport, sexual orientation of women participants, and their concomitant perceptions and behavior represent a fertile area for social psychological research. Sport psychologists have largely avoided, through scholarly discourse, examining lesbianism in sport thereby perpetuating “the silence so loud that it screams.” The purpose of this paper is to identify the harmful intellectual and social consequences of this silence and to advance suggestions for future research directions based on emerging epistemology and theory. It is argued that if the silence is broken using depoliticized functionalist approaches such as sex-role identification and liberal humanism, this will only exacerbate the homophobia and heterosexism that hinders our intellectual pursuit of knowledge in this area and reify the heteropatricarchal oppression of lesbians participating in sport. The rigid socially-constructed isomorphism between sport and masculinity coupled with the social stigma of lesbianism within sport may only be transformed via a paradigmatic shift from traditional functionalism toward a social constructionist approach.

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Conflict Management and Cultural Reparation: Consulting “Below Zero” With a College Basketball Team

Robin S. Vealey

Although sport psychology consultants typically engage in conflict resolution as part of team interventions, cases of extreme relationship conflict in teams resulting in distrust, tension, and hostility require special consideration for the consultant who is starting “below zero” when beginning a consultant relationship with a program. Such a case warrants not just culture building, but cultural reparation and the development of resolution efficacy among team members. The purpose of this case study is to describe an intervention program with a college basketball team that was experiencing multiple relationships conflicts and an extremely dysfunctional team culture. The intervention focused on (a) enabling players to take ownership of and be accountable for a “smart system” team culture, (b) initiating a process to build resolution efficacy that focused on accepting and managing task conflict (while reducing relationship conflict) and emphasized interpersonal risk-taking and vulnerability to build trust, and (c) enhancing coach-athlete relationships. Reflections on the case include the importance of vigilance about ethical boundary and confidentiality issues in “below zero” situations and the role of coaches who prefer transactional leadership styles in building team culture and resolution efficacy for conflict.

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Conceptualization of Sport-Confidence and Competitive Orientation: Preliminary Investigation and Instrument Development

Robin S. Vealey

An interactional, sport-specific model of self-confidence was developed in which sport-confidence was conceptualized into trait (SC-trait) and state (SC-state) components. A competitive orientation construct was also included in the model to account for individual differences in defining success in sport. In order to test the relationship represented in the conceptual model, an instrument to measure SC-trait (Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory or TSCI), an instrument to measure SC-state (State Sport-Confidence Inventory or SSCI), and an instrument to measure competitive orientation (Competitive Orientation Inventory or COI) were developed and validated. Validation procedures included five phases of data collection involving 666 high school, college, and adult athletes. All three instruments demonstrated adequate item discrimination, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity. In the construct validation phase, the results supported several predictions based on the conceptual model.

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Book Reviews

Robin S. Vealey

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Sport-Confidence and Competitive Orientation: An Addendum on Scoring Procedures and Gender Differences

Robin S. Vealey

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Sport Personology: A Paradigmatic and Methodological Analysis

Robin S. Vealey

In a previous review of the literature between 1950 and 1973, sport personology—the study of personality theory and research in sport—was examined with regard to paradigmatic and methodological issues (Martens, 1975). This study follows up and extends that article by examining trends and issues that have developed in sport personology since that time. A content analysis of the sport personality research published in selected journals and proceedings between 1974 and 1987 was made with regard to paradigm, methodological considerations, and objectives. The results indicated that sport personology has shifted paradigmatically from the trait paradigm to interactionism, but the cognitive interactional approach has overshadowed the trait-state interactional approach. Methodological trends included an emphasis on correlational methods and field research. With regard to research objectives, most studies focused on description and prediction with only a few studies focused on intervention.

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Knowledge Development and Implementation in Sport Psychology: A Review of The Sport Psychologist, 1987–1992

Robin S. Vealey

The editorial mission of The Sport Psychologist (TSP) emphasizes the development and implementation of knowledge to enhance the practice of sport psychology. A comprehensive review of all articles published in TSP from 1987 to 1992 was conducted to identify significant trends in knowledge development and implementation since the journal was established. One hundred seventy-six articles were examined and classified based on design, method, objective (scientific or professional), subject characteristics, author characteristics, and content area. Trends that were identified from the review include an emphasis on correlational designs, an increase in intervention studies and the use of case designs, and homogeneity of subjects and authors. Three future directions for advances in applied sport psychology are advocated to increase social relevance, enhance creativity, and reconceptualize the traditional paradigm of knowledge development.

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Future Directions in Psychological Skills Training

Robin S. Vealey

This decade has been marked by the development of several approaches to psychological skills training (PST). To assess current trends in PST in order to ascertain if consumers’ needs are being met, a content analysis of PST approaches published in books in North America between 1980 and 1988 was conducted with regard to target populations, content areas, and format characteristics. Based on the content analysis, six needs representing viable future directions for PST are outlined. These needs include targeting youth and coaches in addition to elite athletes, moving beyond basic education into specific implementation procedures, differentiating between psychological skills and methods, adopting a holistic approach based on the interactional paradigm and a personal development model, defining the practice of sport psychology based on the personal development of sport consumers, and facilitating the theory/practice relationship through research-based PST programming and evaluation research.