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  • Author: Rodrigo M. da Silva x
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Emerson Franchini, Monica Y. Takito, Rodrigo M. da Silva, Seihati A. Shiroma, Lance Wicks and Ursula F. Julio

Purpose:

To determine the optimal interval between competitions for success in the different events of the judo world tour.

Methods:

A total of 20,916 female and 29,900 male competition participations in the judo world-tour competitions held between January 2009 and December 2015 were analyzed, considering the dependent variable, winning a medal, and the independent variables, levels of competition.

Results:

There was an increased probability of winning a medal when the interval was in the 10- to 13-wk range for both male and female athletes competing at Grand Prix, Continental-Championship, and World-Championship events, whereas for Grand Slam, only men had an increased probability of winning a medal in this interval range. Furthermore, men had increased probability of podium positions in Continental Championship, World Master, and Olympic Games when the interval was longer than 14 wk.

Conclusion:

Optimal interval period between successive competitions varies according to competition level and sex; shorter intervals (6–9 wk) were better for female athletes competing at the lowest competition level (Continental Open), but for most of the competitions, the 10- to 13-wk interval was detected as optimal for both male and female athletes (Grand Prix, Continental Championship, and World Championship), whereas for the ranking-based qualified male competitions (ie, Masters and Olympic Games), a longer period (>14 wk) is needed.

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Inacio C. M. da Silva, Valerie L. C. Payne, Adriano Akira Hino, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Rodrigo S. Reis, Ulf Ekelund and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The aim of this study was to review the evidence to date on the association between physical activity and safety from crime.

Methods:

Articles with adult populations of 500+ participants investigating the association between physical activity and safety from crime were included. A methodological quality assessment was conducted using an adapted version of the Downs and Black checklist.

Results:

The literature search identified 15,864 articles. After assessment of titles, abstracts and full-texts, 89 articles were included. Most articles (84.3%) were derived from high-income countries and only 3 prospective articles were identified. Articles presented high methodological quality. In 38 articles (42.7%), at least one statistically significant association in the expected direction was reported (ie, safety from crime was positively associated with physical activity). Nine articles (10.1%) found an association in the unexpected direction and 42 (47.2%) did not find statistically significant associations. The results did not change when we analyzed articles separately by sex, age, type of measurement, or domains of physical activity evaluated.

Conclusions:

The current evidence, mostly based on cross-sectional studies, suggests a lack of association between physical activity and safety from crime. Prospective studies and natural experiments are needed, particularly in areas with wide crime variability.

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes and Jerson Laks

Background: Inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins increase with aging, promoting a chronic low-grade inflammation. Studies have shown a positive effect of exercise on inflammatory markers in older persons. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are the main biomarkers investigated. However, it is unclear if exercise could decrease all these biomarkers. Purpose: The aim was to analyze the effect of chronic exercise on IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels in older persons. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were adopted. Original articles that investigated the effect of chronic exercise on inflammatory profile of the elderly persons were eligible for this review. The databases PubMed, PEDro, EBSCO, and BioMed Central were searched. Three reviewers evaluated each publication for reducing bias. Data about IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were collected and analyzed. A standardized mean difference based on estimated pooled effect size was calculated considering heterogeneity index (I 2) and random effect. Results: Seventy-six studies were retrieved from databases, and 8 of them were analyzed. IL-6 and CRP levels decreased after chronic exercise (overall effect P < .05). Conclusion: Regular exercise decreases IL-6 and CRP levels in older persons. The effect of exercise on TNF-α remains unclear.

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Michelle S.M. Silva, Wladimir Bolani, Cleber R. Alves, Diogo G. Biagi, José R. Lemos Jr, Jeferson L. da Silva, Patrícia A. de Oliveira, Guilherme B. Alves, Edilamar M. de Oliveira, Carlos E. Negrão, José E. Krieger, Rodrigo G. Dias and Alexandre C. Pereira

Aim:

To study the relationship between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and oxygen uptake (VO2) before and after exercise training.

Methods:

Police recruits (N = 206, 25 ± 4 y) with RR (n = 75), RX (n = 97), and XX (n = 33) genotypes were selected. After baseline measures, they underwent 18 wk of running endurance training. Peak VO2 was obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

Results:

Baseline body weight was not different among genotypes. At baseline, XX individuals displayed higher VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak than did RR individuals (P < .003). Endurance training significantly increased VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak (P < 2 × 10−6), but the differences between XX and RR were no longer observed. Only relative peak VO2 exercise remained higher in XX than in RR genotype (P = .04). In contrast, the increase in relative peak VO2 was greater in RR than in XX individuals (12% vs 6%; P = .02).

Conclusion:

ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with VO2. XX individuals have greater aerobic capacity. Endurance training eliminates differences in peak VO2 between XX and RR individuals. These findings suggest a ceiling-effect phenomenon, and, perhaps, trained individuals may not constitute an adequate population to explain associations between phenotypic variability and gene variations.