The heads of marketing and promotion for major professional and university sport organizations were asked to rate the relative importance of 19 marketing objectives on a 5-point Likert scale; 164 responded. Factor analysis resulted in the creation of six factors: player quality, community image of team, entertainment value of sport, team marketing, team as a contender, and attractiveness of game location. ANOVA, Tukey, and student t tests used on the data resulted in significant differences between leagues for the two factors of community image of team and entertainment value of sport. Professional teams favored 5 of 6 objectives over university teams: value of ticket price, entertainment value of the sport, image of the team, community-oriented nature of the team, and availability of athletes for community events.
Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier
Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier
Forty attendance items comprised a questionnaire using a Likert 5-point scale to describe the relative importance of each factor from the YÍew of the following sample of 117: CFL (8), NFL (28), NHL (21), NBA (23), M1SL (11); American Baseball (14), and National Baseball (12). It was hypothesized that no difference exists between leagues on attendance factors; on factor categories; between winning, moderately winning, and losing teams; and between indoor and outdoor leagues. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for significant differences. Factor analysis using the principal component model followed by Varimax rotation was applied to the 40 items. The response rate was 46%. Significant differences resulted. Factor analysis derived 10 factor categories. Baseball and the NFL accounted for most of the differences, followed by the MISL. Items generating differences were scheduling, team roster quality, price, forms of entertainment competition, and convenience for fans. This study provides current status, factor categories, and preliminary trends that point to the need for former study with a larger sample.
Alison J. Armstrong, Hal Hansen, and Roger Gauthier
A theory based model was developed for the evaluation of high performance sport centers (HPSCs) in Canada. The model was developed according to de Groot’s (1969) four-phase interpretative-theoretical methodology. The phases of exploration, analysis, classification, and explanation guided the collection of current program evaluation literature and information on the nature of the HPSC program and its past evaluation practices. Appropriate evaluation models from the literature were assessed with respect to the HPSC program’s nature, and a single theoretical-integrative model was developed with corresponding guidelines for HPSC evaluation. The model is described with reference to (a) the role of evaluation at each stage of the HPSC life cycle, (b) the evaluators and decision makers, (c) utilization of the evaluation information, and (d) a general format for guiding the responsible national sport organizations through the important process of evaluation.