Six physical education specialists—two elementary, two junior high, and two high school (three males and three females)—were studied in an attempt to discern possible sex-role stereotyping in their classes. Data were triangulated from teacher observations, a sex-role inventory, and junior and senior high school student perceptions of teacher treatment in physical education classes. Results revealed that the female teachers used more managerial cues in their classes and called boys by name more frequently than did male teachers. Two male teachers were classified as being gender typed, but results from students of both sexes revealed no perceived differential treatment in class. From this teacher sample, the results suggest that perhaps the gymnasium is not quite the bastion of gender typing as is often assumed. Due to the small sample size, results were not generalized to a larger population and thus additional research is recommended.
Ron E. McBride
This study sought to reduce the practical concerns of six preservice physical education teachers in the Stanford Teacher Education Program (STEP) through adoption of the first six components of the Systematic Teacher Training Model. The study also sought to examine the degree to which teacher effectiveness might be enhanced as a result of this systematic teacher training program. The study employed an intensive experimental approach emphasizing repeated measures over time and an intervention. A multiple baseline ABABA design (“A” indicating the baseline measures and “B” the experimental time periods) was used. The teachers were matched by concerns and randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. The analysis indicated that the teachers assigned to the experimental group employing the systematic treatment showed a significantly greater trend toward reduction of teaching concerns and overall increases in observed teacher effectiveness.
Ron E. McBride
Critical thinking continues to be an important topic in educational literature. Though intriguing, it is complex, and numerous attempts to define critical thinking have been made. The first part of this paper provides an overview of critical thinking and describes current issues and difficulties inherent to the topic. The second part presents and discusses a schematic representation of a theoretical critical-thinking model for the psychomotor domain.
Ron E. McBride
In a three-phase study, the routine task concerns of physical educators were identified for a planned adaptation of the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire. The first phase of the study identified a list of some 500 concerns, which inductive analysis reduced to 10. A 10-item questionnaire followed by a 5-point Likert scale was then sent to a sample of 500 physical educators. Analysis of the data identified 5 items for use in the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire–Physical Education (TCQ–PE). In the final phase of the study, the newly adapted questionnaire was tested on a sample of experienced physical educators. The strong correlation coefficients obtained support the use of these items in the revised instrument. The TCQ–PE, in conjunction with other assessment techniques, represents a valuable data gathering source for continued research into physical education teacher concerns.
Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang
Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed intrinsic regulation, were autonomous, and the males scored significantly higher on intrinsic regulation and perceived health. Of four regulators, intrinsic regulation predicted student perceived health. The social nature of regulation also cannot be overlooked in providing practicable opportunities and relationships that influence learning in university physical activity classes.
Edited by Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang
Jianmin Guan, Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang
Two types of social goals associated with students’ academic performance have received attention from researchers. One is the social responsibility goal, and the other is the social relationship goal. While several scales have been validated for measuring social relationship and social responsibility goals in academic settings, few studies have applied these social goal scales to high school students in physical education settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the scores produced by the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE) in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southern United States. Reliability analyses, principal components factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multistep invariance analysis across two school samples revealed that the SGS-PE produced reliable and valid scores when used to assess students’ social goal levels in high school physical education settings.
Xiaoxia Su, Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang
The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students’ 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students’ scores were fully invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Multigroup SEM analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals positively predicted intrinsic regulation and identified regulation. It also revealed that performance-approach goal was a stronger predictor of external regulation among female students than among male students. Collectively, these results provide evidence that researchers can make valid inferences about differences in achievement goal and self-regulation scores across male and female students. This study also supports the view that mastery-approach goals are motivationally beneficial, especially among female students, in college physical activity class settings.
Ping Xiang, Bülent Ağbuğa, Jiling Liu and Ron E. McBride
Using self-determination theory, this study examined unique contributions of relatedness need satisfaction (to both teachers and peers) to intrinsic motivation and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) over and above those of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction among Turkish students in secondary school physical education.
Participants were 331 (162 boys, 169 girls) middle and high school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the southwest Turkey. Data were collected by previously validated questionnaires.
No gender differences occurred in the mean levels of relatedness to teachers need satisfaction and relatedness to peers need satisfaction. These two types of relatedness need satisfaction made significant unique contributions to student engagement for both boys and girls. The differential roles of relatedness to peers need satisfaction in predicting boys’ and girls’ engagement were observed.
Discussion/Conclusion: The study demonstrated that two types of relatedness need satisfaction uniquely predicted students’ engagement in a secondary school physical education setting. This finding supports self-determination theory that relatedness need satisfaction is an important motivator for students in schools.