Classification: A Form of Athlete Evaluation
Ronald W. Davis
Disability Sports and Medical Professionals
Michael S. Ferrara and Ronald W. Davis
The Impact of Game Outcome on Affect of Military Wheelchair Basketball Players
Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh, and Gwang-Yon Hwang
Participation in physical activity has been shown to improve components of psychological well-being (i.e., affect). Programs such as the Warrior Games have been designed to promote physical activity in wounded military personnel. However, sport competition typically yields a winner and a loser (i.e., game outcome). The experience of a win or a loss may affect how wounded athletes respond to game outcome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the affective changes (positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue) according to game outcome in a sample of wounded military wheelchair basketball players participating in a weekend tournament. The results indicated that the participants who experienced a win reported significantly higher positive affect and tranquility and significantly lower negative affect than those experiencing a loss. These findings have important implications for wounded veteran athletes, as well as coaches and administrative personnel.
Comparison of Practicum Types in Changing Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes and Perceived Competence
Samuel R. Hodge, Ronald Davis, Rebecca Woodard, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to compare the effects of two practicum types (off campus and on campus) on physical education teacher education (PETE) students’ attitudes and perceived competence toward teaching school-aged students with physical disabilities or moderate-severe mental retardation. PETE students, enrolled in a 15-week introductory adapted physical education (APE) course and involved in eight sessions of either off-campus (n = 22) or on-campus (n = 15) practicum experiences, completed Rizzo’s (1993a) Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (PEATID-III) two times. Analysis of pretest data revealed that groups were equated on gender, experience, attitude, and perceived competence. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA revealed no significant difference between practicum types on posttest attitude and perceived competence measures. Attitude scores did not differ significantly from pretest to posttest. Perceived competence improved significantly from pretest to posttest under both practicum types. Implications for professional preparation are discussed.
Intermittent Velocity and Wheelchair Performance Characteristics
Gale M. Gehlsen, Ronald W. Davis, and Rafael Bahamonde
The purpose of this study was to describe the intermittent velocity variation of wheelchair propulsion and to determine the relationship between selected wheelchair propulsive characteristics and peak velocity. The subjects were 11 (10 males and 1 female) members of the U.S. 1988 Paralympic Track and Field Team. Each subject’s personal racing chair was mounted on a Pro Roller. Intermittent velocity was ascertained by a tach-generator. A stationary 16-mm Locam camera was used to photograph the subject’s sagittal plane propulsive movements. A sonic digitizer was used to digitize three complete propulsive cycles for each subject. Paraplegic and quadriplegic subjects’ stroke frequency mean values were 2.27 and 1.80 Hz, respectively. Significant correlations between the Pro Roller’s computer-generated peak velocity values and hand-handrim positions were indicated. Handrim contact angles and trunk angles were approximately 30 to 40° forward of the same angles reported in the literature. Results indicate that a forward lean of the trunk may allow the athlete to increase the range of hand-handrim contact.
Antioxidant Status and Oxidative Stress in Elite Alpine Ski Racers
Andrew W. Subudhi, Scott L. Davis, Ronald W. Kipp, and E. Wayne Askew
The goal of this field study was to assess antioxidant status and markers of oxidative damage in elite alpine ski racers during routine training. Subjects included 12 members of the U.S. Men’s Alpine Ski Team attending a 10-day summer training camp. Blood draws were collected at rest and after exercise: (a) prior to training, (b) following 2 days of dry land training, and (c) after 4 days of on-snow skiing. Seven measures of antioxidant status were determined using colorimetric and HPLC methods (Trolox “equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, total glutathione, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Oxidative stress was assessed using 2 markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) and 2 markers of protein oxidation (carbonylated total proteins and carbonylated hemoglobin). The results of this study suggest that antioxidant status of elite alpine skiers may decline over a period of intense training. However, elevations in markers of oxidative stress were not evident.
Responsibilities and Training Needs of Paraeducators in Physical Education
Ronald W. Davis, Jerome E. Kotecki, Michael W. Harvey, and Amy Oliver
This study describes responsibilities and training needs of paraeducators in physical education. Paraeducators (n =138) employed in 34 midwestern schools received a 27-item questionnaire. Of the 138 paraeducators contacted, 76 responded, resulting in a 55.1% response rate. Only 16% of the total respondents (n = 76) reported receiving specific training in physical education; however, 68 (90%) indicated a willingness to be trained. Less than half (n = 29, 38%) indicated participating in physical education by escorting students, providing cues, and working individually with students. Fewer than eight (28%) of the physical education paraeducators assisted with assessments, shared IEP suggestions, or helped implement behavior modification programs. The most desired training areas included activity modifications, attributes of students with disabilities, and knowledge of motor development.
The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Bone Mineral Density for a Person With a Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Study
Ronald Davis, Charlotte Sanborn, David Nichols, David M. Bazett-Jones, and Eric L. Dugan
Bone mineral density (BMD) loss is a medical concern for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Concerns related to osteoporosis have lead researchers to use various interventions to address BMD loss within this population. Whole body vibration (WBV) has been reported to improve BMD for postmenopausal women and suggested for SCI. The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of WBV on BMD for an individual with SCI. There were three progressive phases (standing only, partial standing, and combined stand with vibration), each lasting 10 weeks. Using the least significant change calculation, significant positive changes in BMD were reported at the trunk (0.46 g/cm2) and spine (.093 g/cm2) for phase 3 only. Increases in leg lean tissue mass and reduction in total body fat were noted in all three phases.
Further Evidence to Change the Medical Classification System of the National Wheelchair Basketball Association
Tim L.A. Doyle, Ronald W. Davis, Brendan Humphries, Eric L. Dugan, Bryon G. Horn, Jae Kun Shim, and Robert U. Newton
A number of researchers have long questioned systems used for classifying athletes with disabilities. Wheelchair basketball players have gained much attention from researchers. Despite this, no change to the NWBA classification system has been made since it was first adopted in 1984. This study investigated the NWBA classification system. At two summer basketball camps, 46 players were tested to assess player sprint performance and stratification under the NWBA medical classification system. The group consisted of Class 1, 2, and 3 players. Electronic timing gates were used to collect 20 meter sprint-times. Results indicate that Class 1 players were significantly slower compared to Class 2 and 3 players (p < .05) with no difference between Class 2 and 3. The results of this study support a change to this system.
Gender-Based Correlation Profiles Among the Release Factors and Distance Thrown in Paralympic Seated Shot Put
Sangwoo Lee, Ronald Davis, Lawrence W. Judge, Young-Hoo Kwon, Kihoon Han, Jemin Kim, Jaewoong Kim, and Jaehwa Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among release factors (speed, height, and angle) and distance thrown in Paralympic seated shot put. Fortyeight trials performed by 11 men and 5 women during the 2012 US Paralympic trials in track and field were analyzed. With both genders combined, release speed (r = .95, p < .01) and angle (r = .51, p < .01) showed significant correlations to distance thrown. Release speed (r = .94, p < .01) in men and all release factors (r = .60–.98, p < .02) in women showed significant correlations to distance. Release speed and angle were identified as important predictors of the distance, explaining over 89–96% of the variance in distance thrown. Unlike athletes without disability, seated shotputters exhibited significant positive speed–angle correlations (combined: r = .37, p < .01; women: r = .57, p = .03). Application of these results should address a focus in training on generating speed through the release point with a consistent release angle.