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  • Author: Ronald K. Hetzler x
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Barton P. Buxton, David H. Perrin, Ronald K. Hetzler, Kwok W. Ho and Joe H. Gieck

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between ethnicity and acute pain response in male athletes. Subjects included 93 male athletes (age = 18.65 ± .58 years) of differing ethnicity. Each subject performed a Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and was evaluated for pain threshold and pain tolerance times. Two one-way analyses of variance were performed to analyze the data. The results indicated that significant differences existed in pain tolerance times between ethnic groups (p<.05). However, no differences were observed in pain threshold times. These findings support the existence of a difference in pain tolerance between ethnic groups in collegiate athletes.

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Charles F. Morgan, Allison R. Tsuchida, Michael William Beets, Ronald K. Hetzler and Christopher D. Stickley


Physical activity guidelines for youth and adults include recommendations for moderate intensity activity to attain health benefits. Indirect calorimetry studies have consistently reported a 100 ste·min−1 threshold for moderate intensity walking in adults. No indirect calorimetry studies have investigated step-rate thresholds in children and therefore the primary purpose of the study was to determine preliminary step-rate thresholds for moderate physical activity walking in children.


Oxygen consumption was measured at rest and used to determine 3 and 4 age-adjusted metabolic equivalents (A-AMETs) for 4 treadmill trials (self-selected, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 MPH). Two trained observers simultaneously counted children’s steps during each walking trial. Step-rate thresholds associated with moderate-intensity activity, defined as 3 and 4 A-AMETs, were determined using hierarchical linear modeling.


Regression analysis determined an overall step rate of 112 and 134 step·min-1 for 3 and 4 A-AMETs respectively. Body mass index (BMI) weight status and age were positively related to A-AMETs.


We suggest age and BMI weight status specific recommendations that range from a low of 100 step·min-1 threshold (3 A-AMETs) for overweight/obese 11- to 12-year-olds to a high of 140 step·min-1 threshold (4 A-AMETs) for healthy weight 9- to 10-year-old children.

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Sara Long Anderson, Kate Zager, Ronald K. Hetzler, Marcia Nahikian-Nelms and Georganne Syler

The intensity and effort of bodybuilding training suggest an overinvestment in body shape and physical appearance, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for developing eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorder tendencies among a sample of collegiate male bodybuilders (BB, n = 68) and controls (C, n = 50) (nonbodybuilders), using the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2). T tests were used to test the hypothesis that bodybuilders' scores would be higher than those of controls. The mean scores on the EDI-2 did not indicate the presence of eating disorder tendencies for either group. Controls scored significantly higher than bodybuilders on the Body Dissatisfaction scale. Results indicate that when the EDI-2 is used, college-age male bodybuilders are not shown to be more likely to have eating disorders than a group of college-age male controls.

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Rachele E. Vogelpohl, Rachel A. Lindsey, Christopher D. Stickley, Ronald K. Hetzler, Whitney Williams and Iris F. Kimura

Subconcussive head impacts do not result in outward signs of neurological dysfunction, however they may have an effect on neurocognitive function. Limited research has indicated that negative changes in neurocognitive function occurs in high school football athletes as a result of one season of football. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effects of one season of high school football on neurocognitive test scores. Results revealed a significant group and time interaction effect (p < .001) for the Verbal Memory composite score of the ImPACT test. Further analysis revealed a significant difference in the Verbal Memory score between groups at postseason (p < .01), with the football group scoring lower than the low contact group. It appears that one season of high school football may have a negative effect on the Verbal Memory composite score of the ImPACT test in high school football athletes.