This study examined energy and fluid supplementation on indices of muscle damage during alpine skiing. Skiers were assigned to a carbohydrate-protein (CP), placebo (PL), or no fluid (NF) group. CP and PL ingested 1.62 L during and after skiing. Myoglobin did not change from pre-skiing (PS) to 2 h post-skiing (2PS) for CP (24.8 ± 1.4 and 25.6 ± 1.6 ng/mL), but rose significantly from 26.4 ± 1.3 to 40.0 ± 2.8 ng/mL for PL and from 29.0 ± 1.3 to 82.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL for NF. Creatine kinase was maintained from PRE to 2 PS for CP, but increased significantly from 117 ± 7.2 to 174 ± 43.4 U/L for PL and from 126 ± 23.2 to 243 ± 34.3 U/L for NF. This study demonstrates that ingestion of a CP beverage minimized muscle damage indices during skiing compared to PL and NF and that ingesting fluids may also minimize muscle damage compared to a NF condition.
John G. Seifert, Ronald W. Kipp, Markus Amann, and Oladele Gazal
Andrew W. Subudhi, Scott L. Davis, Ronald W. Kipp, and E. Wayne Askew
The goal of this field study was to assess antioxidant status and markers of oxidative damage in elite alpine ski racers during routine training. Subjects included 12 members of the U.S. Men’s Alpine Ski Team attending a 10-day summer training camp. Blood draws were collected at rest and after exercise: (a) prior to training, (b) following 2 days of dry land training, and (c) after 4 days of on-snow skiing. Seven measures of antioxidant status were determined using colorimetric and HPLC methods (Trolox “equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, total glutathione, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Oxidative stress was assessed using 2 markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) and 2 markers of protein oxidation (carbonylated total proteins and carbonylated hemoglobin). The results of this study suggest that antioxidant status of elite alpine skiers may decline over a period of intense training. However, elevations in markers of oxidative stress were not evident.