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Awareness and Motivation to Change Negative Self-Talk

James Hardy, Ross Roberts, and Lew Hardy

This study examined the effectiveness of a logbook and paperclip technique on awareness of the use and content of negative self-talk as well as the motivation to change negative self-talk. Participants (n = 73) completed a questionnaire measuring these variables, and were assigned to either a control, paperclip or logbook group. Participants performed three typical training sessions over a three-week period. The logbook group completed a self-talk logbook after each session whereas the paperclip group carried out a paperclip exercise during each session. Upon completion of the training sessions, the questionnaire was readministered. ANCOVAs revealed no significant differences between the groups for motivation to change and awareness of the content of negative self-talk. However, the logbook group had significantly greater awareness of their use of negative self-talk compared with the control group. A qualitative analysis of the logbook group’s use of negative self-talk provided insights into the situations that prompted negative self-talk, the content of the self-talk, and also the consequences of using negative self-talk. Collectively, the findings offer some support for the use of the logbook technique in the applied setting.

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I Am Great, but Only When I Also Want to Dominate: Maladaptive Narcissism Moderates the Relationship Between Adaptive Narcissism and Performance Under Pressure

Shuge Zhang, Ross Roberts, Tim Woodman, and Andrew Cooke

Narcissism–performance research has focused on grandiose narcissism but has not examined the interaction between its so-called adaptive (reflecting overconfidence) and maladaptive (reflecting a domineering orientation) components. In this research, the authors tested interactions between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism using two motor tasks (basketball and golf in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) and a cognitive task (letter transformation in Experiment 3). Across all experiments, adaptive narcissism predicted performance under pressure only when maladaptive narcissism was high. In the presence of maladaptive narcissism, adaptive narcissism also predicted decreased pre-putt time in Experiment 2 and an adaptive psychophysiological response in Experiment 3, reflecting better processing efficiency. Findings suggest that individuals high in both aspects of narcissism perform better under pressure thanks to superior task processing. In performance contexts, the terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive”—adopted from social psychology—are oversimplistic and inaccurate. The authors believe that “self-inflated narcissism” and “dominant narcissism” are better monikers for these constructs.

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Accuracy of Derived Ground Reaction Force Curves for a Rigid Link Human Body Model

Ross H. Sanders, Barry D. Wilson, and Robert K. Jensen

This study investigated whether force data could be derived accurately using segment inertia data determined by the elliptical zone method (Jensen, 1976), automatic digitizing from high-speed video using a Motion Analysis VP110 system, and for an activity that does not require flexion of the thorax. The criterion fonctions were the force-time records of the jumps recorded at 500 Hz by a Kistler 9281B force platform. A second-order Butterworth digital filter was used to smooth the derived data, with frequency cutoffs being selected on the basis of root mean square error of the smoothed function with respect to the criterion force function. In a second procedure, the criterion function was the directly measured force-time record after filtering with a second-order Butterworth digital filter at 5 Hz to remove the high frequency part of the force signal. The closeness of fit of the derived data to the low frequency part of the criterion force was then assessed. It was concluded that, using the techniques described, the low frequency components of the ground reaction forces of drop jumps could be derived accurately.

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Bulls in a China Shop: Narcissism, Intragroup Conflict, and Task Cohesion

Matt W. Boulter, James Hardy, Ross Roberts, and Tim Woodman

When given opportunities for personal glory in individual settings, people high in narcissism excel. However, less is known about narcissists’ influence in team contexts. Across two studies (utilizing cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal designs) involving 706 athletes from 68 teams in total, we tested a conceptual model linking narcissism to task cohesion, via intragroup conflict, moderated by narcissistic group composition. We tested a new sports-oriented measure of intragroup conflict using Bayesian estimation and evaluated our theorizing using a multilevel conditional indirect effect hybrid model. Across both studies, we found that narcissism influenced perceptions of task cohesion via process conflict only, with a negative influence at low narcissistic group composition that was weakened (Study 1) or nullified (Study 2) at high narcissistic team composition. Collectively, these findings offer the first example of how narcissism influences task cohesion in team settings and the contextual effects of narcissistic group composition.

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Coaches Coaching Psychological Skills—Why Not? A Framework and Questionnaire Development

Rosemary A. Arthur, Nichola Callow, Ross Roberts, and Freya Glendinning

This study is part of a program of research investigating coaches delivering psychological skills (PS). Here, 3 studies feature an original conceptualization of coaching PS and the development and validation of 2 questionnaires capturing the coaching of PS. The authors conducted a qualitative investigation to establish a conceptual framework that included the fundamental coaching of PS behaviors (CPS-F) and the needs-supportive coaching of PS (CPS-NS). They then tested the factor structure of 2 subsequently developed questionnaires via a Bayesian structural equation modeling approach to confirmatory factor analysis across 2 samples and ran tests of invariance, concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The CPS-F questionnaire showed an excellent fit for a 3-factor model, whereas the CPS-NS demonstrated an excellent single-factor fit. Significant relationships with theoretically related constructs suggested concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The findings are expected to significantly further research into our understanding of coaches coaching PS.

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The Darker Side of Personality: Narcissism Predicts Moral Disengagement and Antisocial Behavior in Sport

Benjamin D. Jones, Tim Woodman, Matthew Barlow, and Ross Roberts

Despite a plethora of research on moral disengagement and antisocial behavior, there is a dearth of literature that explores personality in the context of these undesirable attitudes and behaviors. We provide the first examination of personality, specifically narcissism, as a predictor of moral disengagement and antisocial behavior in sport. Given that narcissism is negatively related to empathy and positively related to feelings of entitlement, it is more likely for narcissists to disengage morally and to behave antisocially. We thus hypothesized that narcissism would predict antisocial behavior via moral disengagement. Across 12 team contact sports (n = 272), bootstrapped mediation analyses confirmed this indirect effect, which remained significant when controlling for motivational climate, social desirability, sex and sport type. Coaches and practitioners would do well to consider the darker side of personality in targeting moral disengagement and its behavioral consequences in team sports.

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Movement Imagery Ability: Development and Assessment of a Revised Version of the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire

Ross Roberts, Nichola Callow, Lew Hardy, David Markland, and Joy Bringer

The purpose of this research was to amend the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ; Isaac, Marks, & Russell, 1986) in line with contemporary imagery modality and perspective conceptualizations, and to test the validity of the amended questionnaire (i.e., the VMIQ-2). Study 1 had 351 athletes complete the 3-factor (internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, and kinesthetic imagery) 24-item VMIQ-2. Following single-factor confirmatory factor analyses and item deletion, a 12-item version was subject to correlated traits / correlated uniqueness (CTCU) analysis. An acceptable fit was revealed. Study 2 used a different sample of 355 athletes. The CTCU analysis confirmed the factorial validity of the 12-item VMIQ-2. In Study 3, the concurrent and construct validity of the VMIQ-2 was supported. Taken together, the results of the 3 studies provide preliminary support for the revised VMIQ-2 as a psychometrically valid questionnaire.

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Interactive Effects of Different Visual Imagery Perspectives and Narcissism on Motor Performance

Ross Roberts, Nichola Callow, Lew Hardy, Tim Woodman, and Laura Thomas

Two studies examined the interactive effects of different visual imagery perspectives and narcissism on motor performance. In both studies participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40: Raskin & Hall, 1979) and were assigned to either an internal visual imagery or external visual imagery group. Participants then performed a motor task (dart throwing in Study 1 and golf putting in Study 2) under conditions of practice, low self-enhancement, and high self-enhancement. Following completion of the respective tasks, participants were categorized into high and low narcissistic groups based on their NPI-40 scores. In both studies, high narcissists using external visual imagery significantly improved performance from the low to the high self-enhancement condition, whereas high narcissists using internal visual imagery did not. Low narcissists remained relatively constant in performance across self-enhancement conditions, regardless of perspective. The results highlight the importance of considering personality characteristics when examining the effects of visual imagery perspectives on performance.

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Kinesthetic Imagery Provides Additive Benefits to Internal Visual Imagery on Slalom Task Performance

Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, and Martin G. Edwards

Recent brain imaging research demonstrates that the use of internal visual imagery (IVI) or kinesthetic imagery (KIN) activates common and distinct brain areas. In this paper, we argue that combining the imagery modalities (IVI and KIN) will lead to a greater cognitive representation (with more brain areas activated), and this will cause a greater slalom-based motor performance compared with using IVI alone. To examine this assertion, we randomly allocated 56 participants to one of the three groups: IVI, IVI and KIN, or a math control group. Participants performed a slalom-based driving task in a driving simulator, with average lap time used as a measure of performance. Results revealed that the IVI and KIN group achieved significantly quicker lap times than the IVI and the control groups. The discussion includes a theoretical advancement on why the combination of imagery modalities might facilitate performance, with links made to the cognitive neuroscience literature and applied practice.

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Coach Education Related to the Delivery of Imagery: Two Interventions

Nichola Callow, Ross Roberts, Joy D. Bringer, and Edel Langan

Two studies explored coach education imagery interventions. In Study 1, 29 performance coaches were randomly assigned to either an imagery workshop group (n = 13) or an imagery-reading comparison control group (n = 16). Pre and post intervention, coaches completed the CEAIUQ (Jedlic, Hall, Munroe-Chandler, & Hall, 2007) and a confidence questionnaire designed for the study. Further, coaches’ athletes completed the CIAIUQ (Jedlic et al., 2007) at pre and post intervention. Due to a poor response rate (n = 9), an exploratory case study approach was employed to present the data. Results revealed that, while all coaches found the workshop to be interesting and useful, with certain coaches, encouragement of specific aspects of imagery decreased as did confidence to deliver imagery. To overcome the limitations of Study 1, Study 2 employed a needs based approach. Five elite coaches completed a performance profile related to imagery and the CEAIUQ. Four individualized sessions were then conducted. Inspection of post intervention data indicated that the intervention increased encouragement of imagery use, imagery constructs identified as important by the individual coaches, and, when identified, confidence to deliver imagery. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of coach education from both an applied and research perspective.