An inaccurate perception of motor competence might compromise the engagement of children in physical activities and might be a problem in terms of safety in physical education classes or at playgrounds. The relationship between estimation and actual performance in children with different levels of performance in fundamental movement skills (FMS) was analyzed. Three hundred and three children (aged 6–10 years) were ranked according to their performance in FMS tasks: jumping, kicking, throwing, and walking backward (WB) on a balance beam. Tertiles were created for each task according to children’s performance. Before performing the tasks, children estimated their maximum performance. Absolute percent errors (i.e., deviation percentage from accurate estimations) and error tendency (i.e., frequency of underestimations, right judgments, or overestimations) were calculated. All performance groups tended to overestimate their skills at all tasks, except for the upper tertile group at the WB task (underestimation tendency). After controlling for age, children in the lower tertiles were consistently less accurate than children in the upper tertiles, exhibiting greater absolute percent errors for all the tasks. The overestimation tendency that was found might positively influence children’s engagement in physical activities, but unrealistic estimations might be a problem in terms of safety.
Gabriela Almeida, Carlos Luz, Rui Martins and Rita Cordovil
Gonçalo Dias, Micael S. Couceiro, João Barreiros, Filipe M. Clemente, Rui Mendes and Fernando M.L. Martins
The main objective of this study is to understand the adaptation to external constraints and the effects of variability in a golf putting task. We describe the adaptation of relevant variables of golf putting to the distance to the hole and to the addition of a slope. The sample consisted of 10 adult male (33.80 ± 11.89 years), volunteers, right handed and highly skilled golfers with an average handicap of 10.82. Each player performed 30 putts at distances of 2, 3 and 4 meters (90 trials in Condition 1). The participants also performed 90 trials, at the same distances, with a constraint imposed by a slope (Condition 2). The results indicate that the players change some parameters to adjust to the task constraints, namely the duration of the backswing phase, the speed of the club head and the acceleration at the moment of impact with the ball. The effects of different golf putting distances in the no-slope condition on different kinematic variables suggest a linear adjustment to distance variation that was not observed when in the slope condition.