The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of coaching and coaching education in Portugal. In Portugal, sport coaching is traditionally considered a part-time vocation. There has been a growing concern of the Portuguese authorities to increase the standards of quality for sport coaching. Following the 1974 revolution there were profound alterations in how coaching and coach education are regulated. The legislative changes in coach education occurred mainly due to the harmonisation of the qualifications in the European Union. More recently, the responsibility for coach certification has moved from the different sports federations to a national sports organization that has created four grades of coach education. Coach education in all grades requires a general and a specific curricular component as well as an internship supervised by an accredited mentor. The academic formation is now well regulated. However, some sport federations are resistant to this academic certification process because they fear losing their exclusive control of their coach certification.
Coaching and Coach Education in Portugal
Rui Resende, Pedro Sequeira, and Hugo Sarmento
Leadership Efficacy in Youth Football: Athletes’ and Coaches’ Perspectives
A. Rui Gomes, Alexandre Gonçalves, Catarina Morais, Clara Simães, and Rui Resende
According to the Leadership Efficacy Model, leadership efficacy depends on leaders’ tendency to make linear relationships between leadership philosophy, practice, and criteria (i.e., congruence of leadership cycles). Moreover, efficacy increases if coaches make these linear relationships by using the optimal leadership profile and by considering the antecedent factors of leadership (characteristics of the leader, team members, and organizational conditions; i.e., favorability of conditions for leadership). This study compared the perceptions of athletes and their coaches regarding leadership cycles, and tested the moderator role of optimal leadership profile and leadership favorability in the relationship between leadership cycles and leadership efficacy. This study included 92 football athletes (ages less than 17 and 19 years) and respective coaches (n = 5). The evaluation protocol included measures of leadership cycles, leadership styles, leadership favorability, and sport performance perception. Athletes and coaches agreed on coaches’ need to increase their practice and criteria, but athletes also considered that coaches should better clarify their philosophy. Regression analyses confirmed that leadership congruency predicts higher perceptions of team performance in athletes. Moreover, optimal leadership profile and higher leadership favorability were associated with higher team and individual performance. However, these two factors did not moderate the relationship between leadership congruency and efficacy.
Making Sense of Coach Development Worldwide During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Bettina Callary, Abbe Brady, Cameron Kiosoglous, Pekka Clewer, Rui Resende, Tammy Mehrtens, Matthew Wilkie, and Rita Horvath
The commentary brings together the perspectives of a group of coach developers from across the globe who form a community of practice (CoP) from their involvement as “Cohort 5” in the International Council for Coaching Excellence and Nippon Sport Science University Coach Developer Academy. The CoP includes people from three types of organizations: university professors of sport coaching programs, national sport federations, and national multisport organizations’ directors of coach education. While this CoP existed prior to the pandemic, the forced isolation has created a new structure and purpose to the CoP: The authors are all making meaning of the landscape of coach development within which they work by understanding the perspectives of others who work in their domain from across the world and the similar realities that they face in North America, Europe, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand. The authors outline the key themes that emerged from their weekly CoP video conference meetings to shed light on how this pandemic has changed the way they think about coach development.