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Constantinos A. Loucaides and Russell Jago

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pedometer-assessed physical activity and a number of individual, social, and environmental correlates among Cypriot elementary school children.

Methods:

School children in grades 5 and 6 (N = 104) and their parents (N = 70) wore pedometers for five consecutive weekdays and completed questionnaires assessing potential correlates of steps/d.

Results:

A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that gender, weekly frequency of sports club attendance, and hours playing outside accounted for 32% of the variance in steps/d. In addition, children with a body-mass index (BMI) above the 85th percentile (based on age and gender) scored significantly lower steps/d than children with a BMI below the 85th percentile.

Conclusions:

This study suggested that correlates of steps/d in children are similar to the findings of other studies using different measures of physical activity behavior.

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Russell Jago, Tom Baranowski and Michael Harris

Background:

It is not clear if relationships between GIS obtained environmental features and physical activity differ according to the method used to code GIS data.

Methods:

Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts were measured by accelerometer. Numbers of parks, trails, gymnasia, bus stops, grocery stores, and restaurants within the commonly used 400 m and 1-mile (1609.3 m) buffers of subject residences and distance to the nearest feature were calculated. Residential density, connectivity, and crime rate were calculated. Regression models with minutes of sedentary, light, or moderate-to-vigorous activity as dependent variables and environmental and demographics as independent variables were run with backward deletion of environmental variables.

Results:

Park, crime, and gym variables were associated with physical activity, but relationships varied according to whether a 400 m, 1 mile, or nearest criteria was used.

Conclusion:

Environmental variables were associated with the physical activity of adolescent males, but the association was method dependent.

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Maria E. Hermosillo-Gallardo, Russell Jago and Simon J. Sebire

Background:

Approximately 17.4% of people in Mexico self-report physical activity levels below the World Health Organization’s guidelines and an average sedentary time of 16 hours per day.1 Low physical activity has been associated with noncommunicable disease risk factors and previous research suggests that urbanicity might be an important determinant of physical activity. The aim of this study was to measure urbanicity in Mexico and assess if it is associated with physical activity and sitting time.

Methods:

A sample of 2880 men and 4211 women aged 20 to 69 was taken from the 2012 Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity, sitting time and urbanicity; adjusting for sex, education level, socioeconomic status and Body Mass Index. The urbanicity score and the 7 urbanicity subscores were estimated from the CENSUS 2010.

Results:

The subscores of demographic, economic activity, diversity and communication were negatively associated with physical activity. Sitting time was positively associated with the overall urbanicity, and the demographic and health subscores.

Conclusions:

There was evidence of associations between urbanicity and physical activity in Mexico.

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Martyn Standage, Hannah J. Wilkie, Russell Jago, Charlie Foster, Mary A. Goad and Sean P. Cumming

Background:

The Active Healthy Kids 2014 England Report Card aims to provide a systematic assessment of how England is performing in relation to engaging and facilitating physical activity (PA) in children and young people.

Methods:

The systematic methods and processes that underpin the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card were used and adapted. Data and evidence were consolidated, reviewed by a panel of content experts, and used to inform the assignment of letter grades (A, B, C, D, F) to 9 core indicators related to PA.

Results:

Children’s Overall Physical Activity received a grade of C/D. Active Transportation and Organized Sport Participation received grades of C and C-, respectively. The indicators of School and Community and the Built Environment were graded favorable with grades of A- and B, respectively. Active Play, Sedentary Behaviors, Family and Peers, and Government Strategies and Investments were graded as INC (incomplete) due to a lack of nationally representative data and/or as a result of data not mapping onto the benchmarks used to assign the grades.

Conclusions:

Substantial provision for PA opportunities in England exists. Yet more effort is required to maximize use of these resources to increase PA participation.

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Martyn Standage, Lauren Sherar, Thomas Curran, Hannah J. Wilkie, Russell Jago, Adrian Davis and Charlie Foster

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Russell Jago, Karsten Froberg, Ashley R. Cooper, Stig Eiberg and Lars Bo Andersen

Background:

It is not clear the extent to which change in adiposity and cardiovascular fitness (CRF) during early childhood are associated with change in cardiovascular risk factors or if associations are independent or interactive.

Methods:

383 Danish children were examined at ages 6 and 9. CRF, sum of skinfolds (SSF), and blood pressure were assessed. Fasting blood samples were used to calculate total cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C & LDL-C), triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR. Regression models examined whether CRF change or SSF change were independently or interactively associated with risk variables.

Results:

Change in SSF was independently associated with change in TC (z =4.83, P < .0o1), LDL-C (z =4.38, P < .001), systolic (z = 3.45, P < .001), and diastolic (z = 2.45, P = .014) blood pressure. CRF change was independently associated with change in TC (z =-3.86, P < .001), HDL-C (z =3.85, P < .001), and systolic blood pressure (z = 2.06, P = .040).

Conclusions:

Change in fitness and adiposity were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors among young children suggesting a need to increase CRF and prevent weight gain early during development to improve cardiovascular health.

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Russell Jago, Tom Baranowski, Debbe Thompson, Janice Baranowski and Kathryn A. Greaves

Little information about relationships between the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of young children is available in the literature. We therefore examined how sedentary behaviors, TV watching, and encouragements and discouragements for activity were associated with physical activity (as measured by observation and heart-rate monitoring) among a tri-ethnic cohort of 149 three- to four-year-old children, which we followed for three years. The results showed that sedentary behavior predicted observed activity in Years 2 and 3 (r = −.672 and −.831, respectively, R 2 = .577 and .775, respectively). Similar results were obtained for heart rate monitoring. Reducing the time children spend in sedentary behavior might result in increased physical activity.

Open access

Simon J. Sebire, Mark J. Edwards, Kenneth R. Fox, Ben Davies, Kathryn Banfield, Lesley Wood and Russell Jago

The implementation, fidelity, and receipt of a self-determination-theory-based after-school physical activity intervention (Action 3:30) delivered by teaching assistants (TAs) was examined using a mixed-methods process evaluation. Physical activity motivation and need satisfaction were reported by 539 participants at baseline, the end of intervention, and 4-month follow-up. Pupil- and TA-reported autonomy-support and teaching efficacy were collected alongside interviews with 18 TAs and focus groups with 60 participants. Among intervention boys there were small increases in identified, introjected, and external motivation and no differences in need satisfaction. Among girls, intrinsic and identified motivation and autonomy and relatedness were lower in the intervention group. Qualitative evidence for fidelity was moderate, and boys reported greater need satisfaction than girls. TAs provided greater structure than involvement or autonomy-support and felt least efficacious when facing school-based challenges. The findings highlight the refinements needed to enhance theoretical fidelity and intervention effectiveness for boys and girls.

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Russell Jago, Kimberly L. Drews, Robert G. McMurray, Tom Baranowski, Pietro Galassetti, Gary D. Foster, Ester Moe and John B. Buse

This paper examined whether a two-year change in fitness, body mass index (BMI) or the additive effect of change in fitness and BMI were associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors among youth. Cardiometabolic risk factors, BMI group (normal weight, overweight or obese) were obtained from participants at the start of 6th grade and end of 8th grade. Shuttle run laps were assessed and categorized in quintiles at both time points. Regression models were used to examine whether changes in obesity, fitness or the additive effect of change in BMI and fitness were associated with change in risk factors. There was strong evidence (p < .001) that change in BMI was associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors. There was weaker evidence of a fitness effect, with some evidence that change in fitness was associated with change in total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and clustered risk score among boys, as well as HDL-C among girls. Male HDL-C was the only model for which there was some evidence of a BMI, fitness and additive BMI*fitness effect. Changing body mass is central to the reduction of youth cardiometabolic risk. Fitness effects were negligible once change in body mass had been taken into account.

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Russell Jago, Robert G. McMurray, Stanley Bassin, Laura Pyle, Steve Bruecker, John M. Jakicic, Esther Moe, Tinker Murray and Stella L. Volpe

Two pilot studies were conducted to examine whether 6th grade students can achieve moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from 1) activity-based physical education (AB-PE) with 585 participants and 2) a curricular-based (CB-PE) program with 1,544 participants and randomly sampled heart rates during lessons. AB-PE participants spent between 54–66% with a heart rate >140 bpm. CB-PE participants spent between 49–58% with a heart rate >140 bpm. Girls’ mean heart rate was 3.7 bpm lower than the boys. PE can be readily modified so that students spend more than 50% of time in MVPA.