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Edited by Darla M. Castelli, Russell L Carson, and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

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Jr. Louis Harrison, Russell L. Carson, and Jr. Joe Burden

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the common assumption that teachers of color (TOC) are more culturally competent than White teachers by assessing physical education teachers’ cultural competency. A secondary purpose was to ascertain the possible differences in cultural competence levels of White teachers in diverse school settings versus those in more racially homogenous schools. One hundred and ninety physical education teachers from two states in the southeastern U.S. completed a demographic questionnaire and the Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale (MTCS) (Spanierman et al., 2006). The MTCS consists of two subscales; multicultural teaching knowledge (MTK), and multicultural teaching skills (MTS). MANCOVA analyses indicated significant differences with TOC scoring higher in both MTK and MTS than White teachers. Results also indicated that White teachers in city school settings scored significantly higher in MTK than those from more rural school. Results and implications for teacher preparation and professional development are discussed.

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Brian Dauenhauer, Jennifer M. Krause, Dannon G. Cox, Katie L. Hodgin, Jaimie McMullen, and Russell L. Carson

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of 1-day workshops on teachers’ knowledge, practices, and dispositions using known characteristics of quality professional development and Guskey’s five levels of professional development evaluation. Method: Eight workshops were evaluated over a 2-year period using pre/post surveys, end-of-workshop surveys, observations, interviews, and artifacts. Results: Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and trainer effectiveness scores at the end of workshops. Statistical analyses revealed improvements in four of six outcome variables 4 weeks after workshop completion: self-reported knowledge, utilization of implementation strategies, presence of a community of continued learning, and teacher efficacy. Qualitative data corroborated these results but offered mixed evidence of teacher implementation and improved student outcomes. Discussion/Conclusion: Findings confirm that 1-day workshops aligned with characteristics of quality professional development are highly valued by participants and can improve teachers’ knowledge and efficacy, but teacher practice and student learning may be more difficult to influence and document.

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Melissa D. Thompson and Russell L. Carson

Edited by Mary Barnum

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Tao Zhang, Melinda A. Solmon, Maria Kosma, Russell L. Carson, and Xiangli Gu

Using self-determination theory as a framework, the purpose of this study was to test a structural model of hypothesized relationships among perceived need support from physical education teachers (autonomy support, competence support, and relatedness support), psychological need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), intrinsic motivation, and physical activity. Participants were 286 middle school students in the southeastern U.S. They completed previously validated questionnaires assessing their perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and physical activity. The hypothesized model demonstrated a good fit with the data (RMSEA = .08; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; GFI = .96). Need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between need support and physical activity. The constructs of perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness represent the nutriments that facilitate students’ intrinsic motivation and ultimately positively predict students’ physical activity. The findings supported the theoretical tenets of self-determination theory.

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Collin A. Webster, Judith E. Rink, Russell L. Carson, Jongho Moon, and Karen Lux Gaudreault

Birthed over a decade ago and built on a solid foundation of conceptual and empirical work in public health, the comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) model set the stage for a new and exciting chapter of physical activity promotion through schools. On the academic front, there has been much enthusiasm around the potential of CSPAPs to positively affect youth physical activity behaviors and trajectories. However, program uptake in schools has yet to take hold. This article examines the CSPAP model and proposes an illustrative supplement to enhance communication about its application. The authors begin by charting the model’s challenging contextual landscape and then highlight the model’s early successes in spite of such challenges. Subsequently, they turn their attention to limitations in the way the model is presented, which appear to undermine CSPAP advocacy, and focus on improving the messaging about CSPAPs as an immediate step toward increased implementation.

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Russell L. Carson, Michael A. Hemphill, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Tom Templin

As teachers move toward the end of their careers, understanding the experiences that help them derive satisfaction from their work has implications for helping them stay engaged in teaching. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the job satisfaction of late career physical education teachers. Jessica, Sandy, and Bill were later career physical education teachers (17–28 years of experience) who served as participants. All three had been colleagues at Harrisburg Middle School for 13 years. Data were collected using a job satisfaction graphing technique and qualitative interviews, and were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparison. Data analysis resulted in three themes related to the interactions teachers experienced with people in the school: ‘the kids and control,’ ‘our administration and marginalization,’ and ‘my fellow coworkers.’ Each theme related to both positive and negative appraisals of the teachers’ work. Implications for practice and future research are noted.

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Ann Pulling Kuhn, Russell L. Carson, Aaron Beighle, and Darla M. Castelli

Purpose: This study examined changes in physical education teachers’ psychosocial perspectives after participating in a yearlong professional development about Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming. Method: Twenty-three intervention teachers attended a workshop in Year 1 and received one academic year of technical assistance and mentorship, and 30 control teachers only attended a workshop in Year 2. Both groups completed pre- and post-self-reported measures on teacher efficacy, work engagement, and affective commitment. Results: At posttest, intervention teachers reported significantly higher levels of affective commitment, and a significant positive relationship was revealed between affective commitment and the degree to which before-school physical activity was implemented. More experienced teachers (>20 years) reported significantly higher levels of the work engagement subscale of vigor at posttest. Discussion/Conclusion: Participating in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program professional development may positively influence teachers’ job commitment levels and invigorate more experienced teachers, which may relate to Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program implementation.

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Katie L. Hodgin, Lauren von Klinggraeff, Brian Dauenhauer, Jaimie M. McMullen, Ann Pulling Kuhn, Peter Stoepker, and Russell L. Carson

Background: Data-driven decision making is an accepted best practice in education, but teachers seldom reflect on data to drive their physical activity (PA) integration efforts. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a data-sharing intervention with classroom teachers on teacher-directed movement integration and students’ PA and sedentary behavior. Methods: Teacher-directed movement behaviors from 8 classroom teachers in 1 primary school were systematically observed during four 1-hour class periods before (pre) and after (post) an intervention in which teachers individually discussed student movement data with a trained interviewer. Teachers’ K–2 students (N = 132) wore accelerometers for 10 school days both preintervention and postintervention. Results: Multilevel mixed effects regression indicated a nonsignificant increase in teacher-directed movement from preintervention to postintervention (+7.42%, P = .48). Students’ classroom time spent in moderate to vigorous PA increased (males: +2.41 min, P < .001; females: +0.84 min, P = .04) and sedentary time decreased (males: −9.90 min, P < .001; females: −7.98 min, P < .001) postintervention. Interview data inductively analyzed revealed teachers’ perspectives, including their surprise at low student PA during the school day. Conclusions: Findings suggest that sharing data with classroom teachers can improve student PA and decrease sedentary behavior at school.

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Christopher D. Pfledderer, Ryan D. Burns, Wonwoo Byun, Russell L. Carson, Gregory J. Welk, and Timothy A. Brusseau

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare parent preferences of before and after school physical activity program components in rural and suburban elementary schools. Methods: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to measure parent preferences for components of before/after school programs. A total of 183 parents (age = 37.2 [8.2] y, 155 females) sampled from 15 elementary schools (K–6 grades) in the Western United States took part in the study, half of which were from a rural community (n = 93, 50.8%). Results from the discrete choice experiment were analyzed using hierarchic Bayesian methodology, which estimated utility scores and was used to calculate important scores for program components. Results: The specific goal of the before/after school program was the strongest determinant of parents’ stated choice overall, followed by leaders, time of day, length, and main focus. Learning sports as the physical activity goal was the top-rated attribute. Subgroup analyses revealed discrepancies between suburban and rural parents and parents of boys and girls. Conclusion: This study extends the application of discrete choice experiments to school-based programming, providing a unique way to design empirically based, stakeholder informed school programs, specifically within before and after school settings.