This paper examines the evidence between physical activity and cancer in youth populations, both in terms of physical activity as a risk-reduction and rehabilitation behavior. The association between cancer and physical activity as a risk-reducing health behavior is receiving increasing support; however, research on youth participation and subsequent adult cancer incidence is fairly limited, and future research must address numerous design and measurement issues. Specifically, the designs, methods, and measurement vary, highlighting the need for the standardization of measures in future research. Four studies were located that examined physical activity as a means of rehabilitation for youth cancer survivors. All four studies, focusing only on the physical and physiological changes associated with physical activity, found physical activity interventions to be beneficial. Given the positive physical and psychosocial impact that physical activity programs have had in adult cancer survivors, additional research is warranted with children survivors.
Colleen A. Cuthbert, Kathryn King-Shier, Dean Ruether, Dianne M. Tapp and S. Nicole Culos-Reed
Family caregivers are an important health care resource and represent a significant proportion of Canadian and US populations. Family caregivers suffer physical and psychological health problems because of being in the caregiver role. Interventions to support caregiver health, including physical activity (PA), are slow to be investigated and translated into practice.
To examine the evidence for PA interventions in caregivers and determine factors hampering the uptake of this evidence into practice.
A systematic review and evaluation of internal and external validity using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was conducted. Randomized controlled trials or pretest/posttest studies of PA interventions were included.
Fourteen studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Methodological quality of studies and risk of bias was variable. External validity criteria were often not reported. Mean reporting levels were 1) reach, 53%; 2) efficacy/effectiveness, 73%; 3) adoption, 18%; 4) implementation, 48%; and 5) maintenance, 2%.
The lack of reporting of components of internal and external validity hinders the integration of caregiver PA interventions into clinical or community settings. Researchers should focus on standardized outcomes, accepted reporting criteria, and balancing factors of internal and external validity, to advance the state of the science.
S. Nicole Culos-Reed, John L. Robinson, Harold Lau, Kathleen O’Connor and Melanie R. Keats
The purpose of the current study was to examine the viability of conducting a theory-based physical activity (PA) intervention on men with prostate cancer, and the impact of PA on quality of life (QOL). Participants were 31 men, average age of 67 years, with localized or metastatic prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Global QOL, fatigue, and PA measures were conducted at baseline and following the 12-week intervention. An additional follow-up testing was conducted 4 months following the intervention (n = 18). Both moderate and strenuous bouts of exercise, as well as functional capacity, increased significantly from pre- to posttest. Both fatigue severity and resting heart rate decreased significantly at posttest. A trend toward improved global QOL was also noted. It was concluded that a 12-week home-based PA intervention may provide health and QOL benefits for prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. Practitioners are encouraged to promote PA for prostate cancer survivors.
Steven R. Bray, Nancy C. Gyurcsik, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and S. Nicole Culos-Reed
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of proxy efficacy for use in group exercise contexts (e.g., aerobics classes) where participants engage in exercise under the direction of a group exercise leader (e.g., aerobics instructor). Three phases of research are reported. Phase 1 involved group exercisers as active agents in the generating of questionnaire items. In Phase 2, novice exercisers assisted in an item-trimming process and the questionnaire was further refined into a 17-item two-dimensional scale based on preliminary psychometric testing. In the third phase, proxy efficacy beliefs of novice female exercisers (N = 70, average age = 21.09 years, SD = 5.11) were experimentally manipulated through exposure to different exercise group leadership and choreography styles. Results provide preliminary support for the Proxy Efficacy Exercise Questionnaire (PEEQ) as a measure that can provide valid and reliable scores representing women’s proxy efficacy beliefs in group exercise settings. Implications for future research in terms of furthering the construct validation process and potential contributions to understanding exercise adherence among novice exercisers are discussed.