To investigate whether aquatic athletes follow optimal dietary intake, 58 athletes, all members of the Greek national swimming and water polo teams, were tested. Dietary intake was assessed at the nutrient, food, and food group level using the 24-h recall method and a food frequency questionnaire. Mean energy intake for males and females was 14.3 and 8.5 MJ, respectively. Mean carbohydrate consumption for male and female athletes was 4.5 g/kg and 3.8 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Fat intake was 153 g for males and 79 g for females. A significant number of the athletes (71% of the males, 93% of the females) did not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for at least one of the antioxidant vitamins. The data suggest that athletes of both genders consumed too much fat and too little carbohydrate. Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake was related to low intake of antioxidants.
P. Farajian, S.A. Kavouras, M. Yannakoulia and L.S. Sidossis
Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras
The purpose of this article is to assess the hydration status of elite young sailing athletes during World Championship competition. Twelve young, elite, male, Laser Class sailors (age: 15.8 ± 1.1 y, height: 1.74 ± 0.1 m, weight: 65.1 ± 1.5 kg, body fat: 12.5 ± 3.1%, training experience: 7.0 ± 1.2 y) participated in this descriptive study. After three-day baseline bodyweight measurements, hydration status was assessed via pre- and post-race body weights, urine-specific gravity, and thirst ratings via a visual analog scale during four consecutive days of racing. Measurements and data collection took place at the same time each racing day, with mean environmental temperature, humidity, and wind speed at 23.0 ± 0.8°C, 64–70%, and 9 ± 1 knots, respectively. Average racing time was 130 ± 9 min. Body weight was significantly decreased following each race-day as compared to prerace values (Day 1: −1.1 ± 0.2, Day 2: −2.5 ± 0.1, Day 3: −2.8 ± 0.1, and Day 4: −3.0 ± 0.1% of body weight; p < 0.05). The participants exhibited dehydration of −2.9 ± 0.2 and −5.8 ± 0.2% of body weight before and after the fourth racing day as compared to the three-day baseline body weight. Urine-specific gravity (pre–post → Day 1: 1.014–1.017; Day 2: 1.019–1.024; Day 3: 1.021–1.026; Day 4: 1.022–1.027) and thirst (pre–post → Day 1: 2.0–5.2; Day 2: 3.2–5.5; Day 3: 3.7–5.7; Day 4: 3.8–6.8) were also progressively and significantly elevated throughout the four days of competition. The data revealed progressive dehydration throughout four consecutive days of racing as indicated by decreased body weight, elevated urine concentration, and high thirst.
Costas A. Anastasiou, Stavros A. Kavouras, Christina Koutsari, Charalambos Georgakakis, Katerina Skenderi, Michael Beer and Labros S. Sidossis
This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 ± 2.0; HMal: 68.6 ± 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 ± 2.0; Plac: 69.4 ± 3.0 min, P > 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9% faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.