This study examined: (1) coaches’ attitudes and readiness to use sport psychology (SP) services immediately following a SP workshop; and (2) the impact of an educational intervention on coaches’ attitudes and usage patterns during a one-month follow-up. Ninety swim coaches participated in the SP workshop and a total of 53 swim coaches completed the one-month follow-up. The majority of the sample coached at the high school or age group level. Data provided some evidence for the impact of a SP workshop on stage of change, with approximately 13% of coaches moving from precontemplation to contemplation. Two-way mixed ANOVAs did not reveal significant interactions (group × time) and main effects for time found that coaches’ personal openness, behavioral control, self-efficacy, and intentions increased while perceived barriers decreased immediately post-workshop. Furthermore, changes in coaches’ perceived barriers, behavioral control, and self-efficacy were maintained at the one-month follow-up while personal openness and intentions returned close to baseline. Lastly, no differences were found between the stage-matched and control group with regard to behavioral SP usage patterns (e.g., contacting a SP consultant, seeking out more information about SP). However, approximately 40% of coaches accessed the website during the four-week follow-up. The appropriateness of the transtheoretical model of behavior change applied to SP service use with coaches will be discussed.
Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Sam J. Zizzi
Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II and Sam J. Zizzi
A fundamental issue in applied sport psychology is the development of competent professionals who can provide effective and ethical services to clients. The current study uses a qualitative longitudinal design to track the development of five novice sport psychology practitioners in their first year of practice. The research team analyzed and integrated data from surveys, interviews, and journals to understand the participants’ experiences and compare them to previous literature on practitioner development. Participants reported increased confidence and flexibility over time, and reduced their perceived anxiety and dependence on supervision. These changes were similar in nature to what has been reported for counseling trainees, but seemed to happen more quickly. These findings highlight important developmental characteristics of first year sport psychology practitioners, which can help graduate programs to tailor their supervision and training to their students’ needs.
Janaina Lima Fogaca, Sam J. Zizzi and Mark B. Andersen
There is limited evidence for what characteristics of supervision delivery facilitate novice supervisees’ development. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between supervision-delivery approaches and the perceptions of service-delivery competence development in novice practitioners. The authors interviewed 9 supervisor–supervisee dyads before and after the academic term in which the supervisees had their first applied experiences. Supervisees also completed reflective journal entries regarding their supervisory experiences and development. Data analysis included constant comparative analysis and triangulation of qualitative results with a practitioner-skills inventory. Different approaches to supervision delivery seemed to contribute similarly to novice supervisees’ development. Supervisees developed in more areas when the dyads had consistent meetings, close supervisory relationships, feedback, and frequent opportunities for self-reflection and when supervisors adapted the delivery to the supervisees’ developmental levels. In addition, factors in supervisees’ background, practice, and supervision that contributed to perceptions of service-delivery competence are discussed.
Tammy Sheehy, Sam Zizzi, Kristen Dieffenbach and Lee-Ann Sharp
This study examined the experiences of 8 high-performance coaches (male n = 6) from a range of sports who have worked with a sport psychology consultant (SPC) for their own performance enhancement as coaches. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology, each participant engaged in 2 semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis of the data elicited 8 higher-order themes related to the research questions. Impetus themes included buy-in and opportunity. Benefits coaches felt they received included themes of facilitating self-awareness, performance enhancement, enhancing interactions, and friendship development. Barrier themes included lack of resources and stigma. This research gives the field of applied sport psychology insight into how SPCs and high-performance coaches navigate working together in support of the coaches’ performance and professional development.
Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, Kimberly J. Bodey, Scott B. Martin and Sam J. Zizzi
Although there appears to be greater acceptance and use of sport psychology (SP), fully integrating SP consultants and services into college athletic programs has yet to occur in most institutions. Decisions to initiate, continue, or terminate SP services are often made by coaches. Therefore, college coaches with access to services were interviewed to explore their beliefs and expectations about SP service use and how an SP consultant could work effectively with them and their athletes. Using consensual qualitative research methods, three domains in coaches’ perceptions of SP consultants were revealed: who they are, what they do, and how they do it. Findings illustrate the importance of being “on the same page” with coaches, developing self-reliant athletes, and making an impact while remaining in a supporting role.
Sam Zizzi, Dave Goodrich, Ying Wu, Lindsey Parker, Sheila Rye, Vivek Pawar, Carol Mangone and Irene Tessaro
Although much has been learned about the global determinants of physical activity in adults, there has been a lack of specific focus on gender, age, and urban/rural differences. In this church-based community sample of Appalachian adults (N = 1,239), the primary correlates of physical activity included age, gender, obesity, and self-efficacy. Overall, 42% of all participants and 31% of adults age 65 years or older met recommended guidelines for physical activity, which suggests that most participants do not engage in adequate levels of physical activity. Of participants who met physical activity guidelines, the most common modes of moderate and vigorous activity were walking briskly or uphill, heavy housework or gardening, light strength training, and biking. These particular activities that focus on building self-efficacy might be viable targets for intervention among older adults in rural communities.