Critical Research in Sport, Health and Physical Education: How to Make a Difference
Samantha M. Ross, Kathleen McCarty, Bridgette M. Schram, and Layne Case
24-Hour Movement Behaviors Among US Adults With Functional Disabilities
Samantha M. Ross, Justin A. Haegele, Bridgette M. Schram, and Sean Healy
This study aimed to quantify and compare physical activity, sitting time, and sleep behaviors among US adults with and without disabilities using the 2020 Canadian 24-hour movement framework. The weighted prevalence of 24-hour movement guideline adherence was estimated among a nationally representative sample from the 2017 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of US adults (18–65 years old) with (n = 1070) and without (n = 33,370) functional disabilities in vision, hearing, mobility, cognitive, and self-care domains. The adjusted odds of single and combination guideline compliance were estimated by disability type, in reference to adults without disabilities, using separate multivariable logistic regressions. After adjusting for age, sex, and income, adults with disabilities in mobility, cognitive, or self-care domains had approximately half the odds of meeting all 3 guidelines, compared with adults without disabilities (adjusted odds range: 0.49–0.77). Significantly lower adherence was observed among adults with functional disabilities, compared with no disabilities, for sleep, and moderate to vigorous physical activity, but not sedentary guidelines. This report establishes baseline prevalence estimates for guidelines compliance among US adults with functional disabilities ages 18–65 years old. Low guideline adherence, and evidence for significant differences in physical activity and sleep, signals a need to further explore combination health behaviors among adults with disabilities.
Updated National Estimates of Disparities in Physical Activity and Sports Participation Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Disabilities: NSCH 2016–2017
Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield, and Samuel W. Logan
Background: Children and adolescents with disabilities often report low levels of physical activity (PA). Estimating the magnitude of PA disparities has been previously challenged by underreporting and variability in subsampling of disability. Using the National Survey of Children’s Health, this study estimated the population-level PA disparities experienced and the association between disability status and PA engagement. Methods: Weighted prevalence of PA engagement (National Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (2nd edition) and sports participation) was compared across disability groups for children (n = 20,867, 6–11 y) and adolescents (n = 28,651, 12–17 y) and found to be 12%. Age-stratified multivariable logistic regressions estimated the likelihood of PA engagement as a function of disability status and type, after adjusting for child and household factors. Results: Children, but not adolescents, with disabilities had significantly lower odds of being sufficiently active compared with peers without disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.60–0.94). Across age groups, the lowest prevalence rates were observed among those experiencing function and mobility disabilities. Children and adolescents were significantly less likely to participate in sports compared with peers. Conclusion: Children with function and mobility disabilities were identified as priority subpopulations least likely to be sufficiently active. The disparity in sports participation highlights a critical intervention point for increasing PA among children with disabilities.
U.S. Physical Activity Para Report Card for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities
Heidi Stanish, Samantha M. Ross, Byron Lai, Justin A. Haegele, Joonkoo Yun, and Sean Healy
The U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth has tracked 10 physical activity (PA) indicators common to the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix since 2014. This article expands on the U.S. report cards by presenting PA indicator assessments among children and adolescents with disabilities. Grades for indicators were assigned based on a search of peer-reviewed articles presenting nationally representative data. The Global Matrix 3.0 benchmarks and grading framework guided the process. Grades for overall PA, sedentary behaviors, organized sports, and school were F, D+, D+, and D, respectively. Insufficient evidence existed to assign grades to the remaining six indicators. There is a need in the United States for targeted PA promotion strategies that are specific to children and adolescents with disabilities. Without a commitment to this effort across sectors and settings, the low grades identified in this para report card are expected to remain.
Exploring the Interaction of Disability Status and Childhood Predictors of Physical Activity and Sport Participation: An Exploratory Decision-Tree Analysis
Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen R. Bogart, Bridget E. Hatfield, and Samuel W. Logan
A secondary data analysis of 33,093 children and adolescents age 6–17 years (12% with disabilities) from a 2016–2017 National Survey of Children’s Health nonrepresentative sample aimed to identify (a) unique clusters of sociodemographic characteristics and (b) the relative importance of disability status in predicting participation in daily physical activity (PA) and sports. Exploratory classification tree analyses identified hierarchical predictors of daily PA and sport participation separately. Disability status was not a primary predictor of daily PA. Instead, it emerged in the fifth level after age, sex, body mass index, and income, highlighting the dynamic intersection of disability with sociodemographic factors influencing PA levels. In comparison, disability status was a second-level predictor for sport participation, suggesting that unique factors influencing PA level are likely experienced by disabled children and adolescents. The authors employ an intersectionality lens to critically discuss implications for research in adapted PA.