The aim of the study was to determine the influence of immediate and 1-hr-delayed carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) feeding after prolonged exercise on leukocyte trafficking, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, saliva secretory IgA (S-IgA) responses, and circulating stress hormones. In randomized order, separated by 1 wk, 9 male runners completed 3 feeding interventions after 2 hr of running at 75% VO2max. During control (CON), participants received water (12 ml/kg body mass [BM]) immediately and 1 hr postexercise. During immediate feeding (IF), participants received a CHO-PRO solution equal to 1.2 g CHO/kg BM and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM immediately postexercise and water 1 hr postexercise. During delayed feeding (DF), participants received water immediately postexercise and CHO-PRO solution 1 hr postexercise. Unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 20 min until 140 min postexercise. No significant interactions were observed for circulating leukocytes and T-lymphocyte subset counts, S-IgA secretion rate, or plasma cortisol, epinephrine, or norepinephrine concentration. Bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation decreased during recovery on CON and DF (24% and 31%, respectively, at 140 min; p < .01) but not on IF. Compared with CON, neutrophil degranulation was higher on IF at 100 min postexercise and higher on IF than DF at 80 min and 100 min onward postexercise (p < .05). Ingestion of a CHO-PRO solution immediately after, but not 1 hr after, prolonged strenuous exercise prevented the decrease in neutrophil degranulation but did not alter circulating stress hormone, leukocyte trafficking, or S-IgA responses. Further research should identify the independent effect of different quantities of CHO and PRO ingestion during recovery on neutrophil responses and other aspects of immune function.
Ricardo J.S Costa, Samuel J. Oliver, Stewart J. Laing, Robert Walters, James L.J Bilzon, and Neil P. Walsh
Stewart J. Laing, Samuel J. Oliver, Sally Wilson, Robert Walters, James L.J Bilzon, and Neil P. Walsh
The aim was to investigate the effects of 48 hr of fluid, energy, or combined fluid and energy restriction on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subset counts (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy men (M ± SEM age 21 ± 1 yr) participated in 4 randomized 48-hr trials. During control (CON) participants received their estimated energy (2,903 ± 17 kcal/day) and fluid (3,912 ± 140 ml/day) requirements. During fluid restriction (FR) they received their energy requirements and 193 ± 19 ml/day water to drink. During energy restriction (ER) they received their fluid requirements and 290 ± 6 kcal/day. Fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) was a combination of FR and ER. After 48 hr, participants performed a 30-min treadmill time trial (TT) followed by rehydration (0–2 hr) and refeeding (2–6 hr). Circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte counts remained unchanged for CON and FR. Circulating leukocyte, lymphocyte, CD3+, and CD4+ counts decreased by ~20% in ER and ~30% in F+ER by 48 hr (p < .01), returning to within 0-hr values by 6 hr post-TT. Circulating neutrophil count and degranulation were unaltered by dietary restriction at rest and after TT. In conclusion, a 48-hr period of ER and F+ER, but not FR, decreased circulating leukocyte, lymphocyte, CD3+, and CD4+ counts but not neutrophil count or degranulation. Circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte counts normalized on refeeding. Finally, dietary restriction did not alter circulating leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil responses to 30 min of maximal exercise.
Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh, and Samuel J. Oliver
Identifying mild dehydration (≤2% of body mass) is important to prevent the negative effects of more severe dehydration on human health and performance. It is unknown whether a single hydration marker can identify both mild intracellular dehydration (ID) and extracellular dehydration (ED) with adequate diagnostic accuracy (≥0.7 receiver-operating characteristic–area under the curve [ROC-AUC]). Thus, in 15 young healthy men, the authors determined the diagnostic accuracy of 15 hydration markers after three randomized 48-hr trials; euhydration (water 36 ml·kg−1·day−1), ID caused by exercise and 48 hr of fluid restriction (water 2 ml·kg−1·day−1), and ED caused by a 4-hr diuretic-induced diuresis begun at 44 hr (Furosemide 0.65 mg/kg). Body mass was maintained on euhydration, and dehydration was mild on ID and ED (1.9% [0.5%] and 2.0% [0.3%] of body mass, respectively). Urine color, urine specific gravity, plasma osmolality, saliva flow rate, saliva osmolality, heart rate variability, and dry mouth identified ID (ROC-AUC; range 0.70–0.99), and postural heart rate change identified ED (ROC-AUC 0.82). Thirst 0–9 scale (ROC-AUC 0.97 and 0.78 for ID and ED) and urine osmolality (ROC-AUC 0.99 and 0.81 for ID and ED) identified both dehydration types. However, only the thirst 0–9 scale had a common dehydration threshold (≥4; sensitivity and specificity of 100%; 87% and 71%, 87% for ID and ED). In conclusion, using a common dehydration threshold ≥4, the thirst 0–9 scale identified mild intracellular and ED with adequate diagnostic accuracy. In young healthy adults’, thirst 0–9 scale is a valid and practical dehydration screening tool.
Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, and Stuart D.R. Galloway
This study systematically examined the influence of carbohydrate (sucrose), sodium, and caffeine on the fluid retention potential of beverages under euhydrated conditions, using the beverage hydration index method. Three cohorts, each of 12 young, healthy, active men, ingested 1 L of beverages containing four different concentrations of a single component (sucrose, sodium, or caffeine) in a double-blind, crossover manner. Urine output was collected for the subsequent 4 hr. Cumulative urine output was lower and net fluid balance was higher after 10 and 20% sucrose beverages than 0 and 5% sucrose beverages (p < .05), and after 27 and 52 mmol/L sodium beverages than 7 and 15 mmol/L sodium beverages (p < .05). No difference in urine output or net fluid balance was apparent following ingestion of caffeine at concentrations of 0–400 mg/L (p = .83). Consequently, the calculated beverage hydration index was greater in beverages with higher sucrose or sodium content, but caffeine had no effect. No difference was observed in arginine vasopressin or aldosterone between any trials. These data highlight that the key drivers promoting differences in the fluid retention potential of beverages when euhydrated are energy density, likely through slowed fluid delivery to the circulation (carbohydrate content effect), or electrolyte content through improved fluid retention (sodium content effect). These data demonstrate that beverage carbohydrate and sodium content influence fluid delivery and retention in the 4 hr after ingestion, but caffeine up to 400 mg/L does not. Athletes and others can use this information to guide their daily hydration practices.