The purpose was to describe the behaviors of eighth-grade students with and without physical disabilities relative to social inclusion in a general physical education program. Participants were 3 girls with physical disabilities and 19 classmates (11 females, 8 males) without disabilities. The method was case study. Data for a 6-week softball unit were collected using videotapes, live observations, and interviews. Findings indicated that students with and without disabilities infrequently engaged in social interactions. Average percentage of time that classmates gave to students with disabilities was 2% social talk and less than 1% in each category for praise, use of first name, feedback, and physical contact. Two themes emerged in this regard: segregated inclusion and social isolation. Students with disabilities interacted with each other to a greater degree than with classmates without disabilities. Analysis of use of academic learning time revealed different percentages for students with and without disabilities.
Kimberly Place and Samuel R. Hodge
Jihoun An and Samuel R. Hodge
The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore the experiences and meaning of parental involvement in physical education from the perspectives of the parents of students with developmental disabilities. The stories of four mothers of elementary aged children (3 boys, 1 girl), two mothers and one couple (mother and father) of secondary-aged youth (1 girl, 2 boys) with developmental disabilities, were gathered by using interviews, photographs, school documents, and the researcher’s journal. Bronfenbrenner’s (2005) ecological system theory provided a conceptual framework to interpret the findings of this inquiry. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis: being an advocate for my child, understanding the big picture, and collaborative partnerships undeveloped in GPE. The findings lend additional support to the need for establishing collaborative partnerships in physical education between home and school environments (An & Goodwin, 2007; Tekin, 2011).
Samuel R. Hodge and Paul Jansma
Attitude change of physical education majors was studied in relation to number of weeks in an introductory adapted physical education (APE) course and type of practicum location (on- or off-campus). Data were collected using the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (PEATID-III) (Rizzo, 1993b) and a practicum information questionnaire (PIQ). Participants completing the PEATID-III during Weeks 1, 10, and 15 of their course were 292 males and 182 females in 22 institutions of higher education (IHEs) representing 17 states. Participants completing the PIQ were 17 faculty members. A nonequivalent comparison group, pretest-posttest experimental design was used with factorial ANOVA, post-hoc measures, ANCOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings indicated that off- and on-campus practicum both promoted positive attitude change between Weeks 1 and 10 and Weeks 1 and 15. On-campus practicum experiences improved attitudes significantly more than off-campus ones.
Samuel R. Hodge and Doris R. Corbett
In this article, the authors engage in discourse centrally located in the organizational socialization of Black and Hispanic kinesiology faculty and students within institutions of higher education. First, our commentary is situated in the theoretical framework of organizational socialization in regards to insight about the plight of Black and Hispanic kinesiology professionals. Next, data are presented that highlight the status of Black and Hispanic faculty in academe. Informed by previous research, the authors also discuss the socialization experiences of such faculty in kinesiology programs and departments, particularly at predominantly White institutions of higher education. Lastly, challenges are identified that are associated with recruiting, hiring, retaining, securing tenured status, and advancing Black and Hispanic faculty at leading doctorate-granting institutions in the United States.
Samuel R. Hodge and Louis Harrison Jr.
The purpose of this paper is to engage the reader in a conversation about justice imperatives in education, disability, and health. As counternarrative to structured majoritarian scholarship and positioned in the expressed intent of the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th annual meeting theme of Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative, we express feelings about the urgency for social justice in teacher education. To start, we operationally define social justice as advocacy, agency, and action. Next, we recommend the application of critical theoretical frameworks in conceptualizing and conducting research involving historically marginalized and minoritized populations (e.g., African American students). This conversation is theoretically grounded in intersectionality to offer a nuanced understanding of social constructions, such as ethnicity (e.g., African American) and race (e.g., Black), gender, culture, disability, and sociometric positioning regarding justice imperatives in education, disability, and health.
Samuel R. Hodge, Ronald Davis, Rebecca Woodard, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to compare the effects of two practicum types (off campus and on campus) on physical education teacher education (PETE) students’ attitudes and perceived competence toward teaching school-aged students with physical disabilities or moderate-severe mental retardation. PETE students, enrolled in a 15-week introductory adapted physical education (APE) course and involved in eight sessions of either off-campus (n = 22) or on-campus (n = 15) practicum experiences, completed Rizzo’s (1993a) Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (PEATID-III) two times. Analysis of pretest data revealed that groups were equated on gender, experience, attitude, and perceived competence. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA revealed no significant difference between practicum types on posttest attitude and perceived competence measures. Attitude scores did not differ significantly from pretest to posttest. Perceived competence improved significantly from pretest to posttest under both practicum types. Implications for professional preparation are discussed.
Desmond W. Delk, Michelle Vaughn, and Samuel R. Hodge
Purpose: The primary purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to analyze the current body of social justice research in Physical Education Teacher Education conducted in the United States exclusively. As a secondary purpose, we defined social justice as articulated in the Physical Education Teacher Education literature and summarized discourse undergirding social justice principles. Method: The research design was documentary analysis with keyword searches used to identify articles from selected electronic databases over a 15-year period from 2005 through 2020. Thirteen articles met all inclusion criteria (i.e., empirical studies). These studies were retrieved, reviewed, coded, analyzed thematically, and summarized. Findings/Discussion: From this process, six major recurrent themes emerged: (a) social justice in Black context, (b) learning social justice, (c) diversified and racialized identities, (d) competencies and pedagogies, (e) viewpoints, and (f) criticality and pluralism.
Alexander Vigo-Valentín, Kimberly A. Bush, and Samuel R. Hodge
There is limited evidence on physical activity patterns among Hispanic adolescents in Puerto Rico. This restricts opportunities to implement effective interventions and policies to increase physical activity in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity behaviors of adolescents attending middle and high schools in Puerto Rico based on a compendium of moderate to vigorous physical activities including walking, jogging or running, bicycling, sports and more. A secondary purpose was to examine group differences as a function of gender and school level.
A cross-sectional survey research design was used. Students (N = 637) attending public middle and high schools completed a Visual 7-Day Physical Activity Recall survey. Both descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to describe the sample and to determine group differences.
Puerto Rican adolescents’ levels of physical activity decreased throughout the week. Only a small proportion of them reached at least 60 minutes everyday of the week. Differences were found between middle and high school students’ daily and weekly participation in physical activities.
Most adolescents do not engage in sufficient physical activity.
Implications of the results are discussed and recommendations are articulated for policy makers, educators, and other professionals.
Samuel R. Hodge, Nathan M. Murata, and Francis M. Kozub
The purpose was to develop an instrument for use in physical education teacher education (PETE) programs that would yield valid evidence of the judgments of PETE preservice teachers toward the inclusion of students with disabilities into general physical education classes. Both the conceptualization that judgments represent the cognitive expressions of attitudes (Ajzen, 2001; Sherif & Hovland, 1961) and focus group discussions were used to create the Physical Educators’ Judgments About Inclusion (PEJI) instrument. Following content validation procedures, we administered PEJI to 272 PETE preservice teachers. Subsequent principal component analysis to generate construct validity evidence indicated 15 items should be retained; they collectively explained 53% of the variance using a three-component model. Dimensions of the PEJI pertained to judgments about inclusion, acceptance, and perceived training needs. Alpha coefficients for the three subscales ranged from .64 to .88.
Samuel R. Hodge, Dana D. Brooks, and Louis Harrison Jr.
This article is divided into two major sections. First, the authors provided interpretations and conclusions about enhancing diversity in kinesiology based on the collection of articles for this Special Theme of the Kinesiology Review. There are six informative articles for this Special Theme on Diversity in Kinesiology that include Why We Should Care about Diversity in Kinesiology by Brooks, Harrison Jr., Norris, and Norwood; Diversity in Kinesiology: Theoretical and Contemporary Considerations by Hodge and Corbett; Creating an Inclusive Culture and Climate that Supports Excellence in Kinesiology by Lowrie and Robinson; Undergraduate Preparedness and Partnerships to Enhance Diversity in Kinesiology by Gregory-Bass, Williams, Blount, and Peters; Creating a Climate of Organizational Diversity—Models of Best Practice by Keith and Russell; and this final article. Second, we identify strategies and provided recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Black and Hispanic faculty and students in kinesiology programs.