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  • Author: Samuel Ryan x
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Samuel Ryan, Aaron J. Coutts, Joel Hocking and Thomas Kempton

Purpose:

To examine the influence of a range of individual player characteristics and match-related factors on activity profiles during professional Australian football matches.

Methods:

Global positioning system (GPS) profiles were collected from 34 professional Australian football players from the same club over 15 competition matches. GPS data were classified into relative total and high-speed running (HSR; >20 km/h) distances. Individual player aerobic fitness was determined from a 2-km time trial conducted during the preseason. Each match was classified according to match location, season phase, recovery length, opposition strength, and match outcome. The total number of stoppages during the match was obtained from a commercial statistics provider. A linear mixed model was constructed to examine the influence of player characteristics and match-related factors on both relative total and HSR outputs.

Results:

Player aerobic fitness had a large effect on relative total and HSR distances. Away matches and matches lost produced only small reductions in relative HSR distances, while the number of rotations also had a small positive effect. Matches won, more player rotations, and playing against strong opposition all resulted in small to moderate increases in relative total distance, while early season phase, increased number of stoppages, and away matches resulted in small to moderate reductions in relative total distance.

Conclusions:

There is a likely interplay of factors that influence running performance during Australian football matches. The results highlight the need to consider a variety of contextual factors when interpreting physical output from matches.

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Samuel Ryan, Thomas Kempton, Emidio Pacecca and Aaron J. Coutts

Purpose: To examine the measurement properties of an adductor strength-assessment system in professional Australian footballers. Methods: Observational, longitudinal design. Test–retest reliability data were collected from 18 professional Australian footballers from 1 club on the same day during the 2017 Australian Football League season. Week-to-week variation data were collected on 45 professional Australian footballers from 1 club during the same season at 48, 72, and 120 h postmatch (rounds 1–23). Players lay beneath a GroinBar hip-strength testing system in supine position with their knee joints at an angle of 60°. Force (in newtons) was extracted for the left and right limbs of each player and a pain score from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = maximum pain) was provided. Coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile change were calculated on test–retest data. Signal-to-noise ratio was calculated for each major time point. Mean difference between force scores in a subgroup of players with and without groin pain (n = 18) was collected as evidence of construct validity for the system. Results: Test CV was 6.3% (4.9–9.0%). CV exceeded the smallest worthwhile change on both limbs. Intraclass correlation coefficient was .94. Signal-to-noise ratio ranged from 1.6 to 2.6 on average for 48, 72, and 120 h postmatch. Groin pain had a very likely moderate negative effect on adductor strength (effect size: 0.41). Conclusions: The system possesses greater measurement precision than dynamometry and sphygmomanometer adductor strength-assessment methods in professional Australian footballers. Increased groin pain reduced groin squeeze force production. Practitioners may interpret changes exceeding 6.3% in adductor strength as real.

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Samuel Ryan, Emidio Pacecca, Jye Tebble, Joel Hocking, Thomas Kempton and Aaron J. Coutts

Purpose: To examine the measurement reliability and sensitivity of common athlete monitoring tools in professional Australian Football players. Methods: Test–retest reliability (noise) and weekly variation (signal) data were collected from 42 professional Australian footballers from 1 club during a competition season. Perceptual wellness was measured via questionnaires completed before main training sessions (48, 72, and 96 h postmatch), with players providing a rating (1–5 Likert scale) regarding their muscle soreness, sleep quality, fatigue level, stress, and motivation. Eccentric hamstring force and countermovement jumps were assessed via proprietary systems once per week. Heart rate recovery was assessed via a standard submaximal run test on a grass-covered field with players wearing a heart rate monitor. The heart rate recovery was calculated by subtracting average heart rate during final 10 seconds of rest from average heart rate during final 30 seconds of exercise. Typical test error was reported as coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) and intraclass coefficients. Sensitivity was calculated by dividing weekly CV% by test CV% to produce a signal to noise ratio. Results: All measures displayed acceptable sensitivity. Signal to noise ratio ranged from 1.3 to 11.1. Intraclass coefficients ranged from .30 to .97 for all measures. Conclusions: The heart rate recovery test, countermovement jump test, eccentric hamstring force test, and perceptual wellness all possess acceptable measurement sensitivity. Signal to noise ratio analysis is a novel method of assessing measurement characteristics of monitoring tools. These data can be used by coaches and scientists to identify meaningful changes in common measures of fitness and fatigue in professional Australian football.

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Samuel Ryan, Aaron J. Coutts, Joel Hocking, Patrick A. Dillon, Anthony Whitty and Thomas Kempton

Objectives: To examine the collective influence of a range of physical preparation elements on selected performance measures during Australian football match play. Design: Prospective and longitudinal. Methods: Data were collected from 34 professional Australian football players from the same club during the 2016 Australian Football League competition season. Match activity profiles and acute (7-d) and chronic (3-wk) training loads were collected using global positioning system devices. Training response was measured by well-being questionnaires completed prior to the main training session each week. Maximal aerobic running speed (MAS) was estimated by a 2-km time trial conducted during preseason. Coach ratings were collected from the senior coach and 4 assistants after each match on a 5-point Likert scale. Player ratings were obtained from a commercial statistics provider. Fifteen matches were analyzed. Linear mixed models were constructed to examine the collective influence of training-related factors on 4 performance measures. Results: Muscle soreness had a small positive effect (ES: 0.12) on Champion Data rating points. Three-week average high-speed running distance had a small negative effect (ES: 0.14) on coach ratings. MAS had large to moderate positive effects (ES: 0.55 to 0.47) on relative total and high-speed running distances. Acute total and chronic average total running distance had small positive (ES: 0.13) and negative (ES: 0.14) effects on relative total and high-speed running distance performed during matches, respectively. Conclusions: MAS should be developed to enhance players’ running performance during competition. Monitoring of physical preparation data may assist in reducing injury and illness and increasing player availability but not enhance football performance.