The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of auditory pacing on period stability and temporal consistency of a dual motor task in children with and without dyslexia and with varying amounts of motor deficiency. Fifty-four children were divided into groups based on dyslexia diagnosis and score on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Participants performed a dual motor task (clapping while walking) at a self-determined pace in a pretest block, practiced 4 blocks of 4 trials with a metronome pacing signal, and finished with a posttest block without auditory pacing. Measures of period stability (interclap/interheel strike intervals across trial blocks) and temporal consistency (coefficient of variation of period with trials) were taken. The results suggest that auditory pacing may improve period stability across groups, but does not appear to impact temporal consistency. Weak support existed for a general impairment of motor function in children diagnosed with dyslexia.
Nancy Getchell, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, and Samuel W. Logan
Jaehun Jung, Layne Case, Samuel W. Logan, and Joonkoo Yun
The purposes of this study were (a) to investigate the prevalence of physical educators who report delivering high-quality instructional practices to students with disabilities and (b) to examine the relationships between teachers’ qualifications and the delivery of high-quality instructional practices. A secondary analysis using data from the School Health Policy and Practice Study 2014 data set was employed. The analytic sample included 256 physical educators who taught students with disabilities. Prevalence estimates of physical educators who reported using high-quality instructional practices were calculated. Two separate binary logistic regressions using weighted data were conducted to evaluate the relative contribution of (a) teacher qualifications and (b) educational degrees in accounting for differences in the use of high-quality instructional practices. Less than half of the sample reported using high-quality instructional practices. Considering the increasing prevalence of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, teacher education programs should prioritize providing teacher candidates with coursework that aligns with the expectations of physical educators who teach students with disabilities.
Samuel W. Logan, E. Kipling Webster, Nancy Getchell, Karin A. Pfeiffer, and Leah E. Robinson
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence of the relationship between fundamental motor skills (FMS) competence and physical activity by qualitatively describing results from 13 studies that met rigorous inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: (a) published in a peer-review journal, (b) participants were between the ages of 3–18, (c) participants were typically developing, (d) FMS was measured by a process-oriented assessment, (e) assessed physical activity, (f) related FMS and physical activity through statistical procedures, and (g) printed in English. Databases were searched for relevant articles using key terms related to FMS and physical activity. Evidence suggested low to moderate relationships between FMS competence and physical activity in early childhood (r = .16 to .48; R2 = 3–23%, 4 studies), low to high relationships in middle to late childhood (r = .24 to .55; R2 = 6–30%, 7 studies), and low to moderate relationships in adolescence (r = .14 to .35; R2 = 2–12.3%, 2 studies). Across ages, object control skills and locomotor skills were more strongly related to physical activity for boys and girls, respectively. Future research should emphasize experimental and longitudinal research designs to provide further understanding of the relationship between FMS competence and physical activity.
Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield, and Samuel W. Logan
Background: Children and adolescents with disabilities often report low levels of physical activity (PA). Estimating the magnitude of PA disparities has been previously challenged by underreporting and variability in subsampling of disability. Using the National Survey of Children’s Health, this study estimated the population-level PA disparities experienced and the association between disability status and PA engagement. Methods: Weighted prevalence of PA engagement (National Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (2nd edition) and sports participation) was compared across disability groups for children (n = 20,867, 6–11 y) and adolescents (n = 28,651, 12–17 y) and found to be 12%. Age-stratified multivariable logistic regressions estimated the likelihood of PA engagement as a function of disability status and type, after adjusting for child and household factors. Results: Children, but not adolescents, with disabilities had significantly lower odds of being sufficiently active compared with peers without disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.60–0.94). Across age groups, the lowest prevalence rates were observed among those experiencing function and mobility disabilities. Children and adolescents were significantly less likely to participate in sports compared with peers. Conclusion: Children with function and mobility disabilities were identified as priority subpopulations least likely to be sufficiently active. The disparity in sports participation highlights a critical intervention point for increasing PA among children with disabilities.
Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen R. Bogart, Bridget E. Hatfield, and Samuel W. Logan
A secondary data analysis of 33,093 children and adolescents age 6–17 years (12% with disabilities) from a 2016–2017 National Survey of Children’s Health nonrepresentative sample aimed to identify (a) unique clusters of sociodemographic characteristics and (b) the relative importance of disability status in predicting participation in daily physical activity (PA) and sports. Exploratory classification tree analyses identified hierarchical predictors of daily PA and sport participation separately. Disability status was not a primary predictor of daily PA. Instead, it emerged in the fifth level after age, sex, body mass index, and income, highlighting the dynamic intersection of disability with sociodemographic factors influencing PA levels. In comparison, disability status was a second-level predictor for sport participation, suggesting that unique factors influencing PA level are likely experienced by disabled children and adolescents. The authors employ an intersectionality lens to critically discuss implications for research in adapted PA.
Nadia C. Valentini, Nancy Getchell, Samuel W. Logan, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, Mary E. Rudisill, and Leah E. Robinson
We compared children with, at-risk for, or without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) through (a) correlations, (b) gender and age comparisons, (c) cross tab analyses, and (d) factor analyses.
Children (N = 424; age range: 4–10 years) from southern Brazil completed the TGMD-2 and MABC and placed into groups (DCD: ≤ 5th%, n = 58; at-risk: > 5th to ≤ 15th%, n = 133; typically developing (TD) >16th%, n = 233).
The strongest correlation was between total performance on the TGMD-2 and MABC (r = .37). No gender differences were found for performance on the MABC while boys performed better than girls on the TGMD-2. Cross tab analyses indicated a high level of agreement for children who performed in the lowest percentiles on each assessment. Factor analyses suggested that, for both the TD and at-risk groups, three factors loaded on the motor assessments. In contrast, the DCD group loaded on a sport skill, general skill, and a manipulative skill factor, accounting for 42.3% of the variance.
Evidence suggests that children who perform very poorly on one assessment are likely to perform poorly on the other. Children with DCD may have sports-related skill deficiencies.
Nadia C. Valentini, Samuel W. Logan, Barbara C. Spessato, Mariele Santayana de Souza, Keila G. Pereira, and Mary E. Rudisill
The objectives of this study were to examine sex and age differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS) and to describe the prevalence of low motor proficiency and mastery competence. The Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition was used to assess 2,377 children (3–10 years old) from eight states and 75 schools in Brazil. The results showed that (a) boys are more proficient than girls in the majority of FMS, (b) FMS development begins to plateau at age 7, (c) low motor proficiency is present at age 10 for several FMS, and (d) mastery competence was achieved by only a small number of children. These findings suggest that increased opportunities to engage in physical activity that promotes FMS competence are needed.
Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps, and William D. Smart
Background: Go Baby Go is a community program that provides modified ride-on cars to young children with disabilities. Aims: (1) To describe the real world modified ride-on car usage of young children with disabilities; (2) To compare subjectively reported modified ride-on car usage recorded by parents with objectively reported usage based on electronic tracking data. Methods: 14 young children (1–3 years old) with disabilities used a modified ride-on car for three months. Results: On average, parent-reported activity log data indicated that children used the modified ride-on car for 17.8 minutes per session (SD = 9.9) and 195.1 total minutes (SD = 234.8) over three months. Objective tracking data indicated 16.5 minutes per session (SD = 8.6) and 171.4 total minutes (SD = 206.1) over three months. No significant difference of modified ride-on car usage was found between parent-reported activity log data and objective tracking; yet, the mean absolute difference between tracking methods was 96 minutes (SD = 8.6) and suggests over- or under-reporting of families. Children used the modified ride-on car more in the first half compared to the second half of the three-month period (p < .05). Conclusions: This study may inform future research studies and local chapters of the Go Baby Go community program.