This case is based on a collection of real-life scenarios encountered by employees working for professional sport organizations. The workplace in this environment contains circumstances distinct to the sport context which this case aims to highlight. A small work group of three individuals with diverse backgrounds representing key departments in a professional basketball club are brought together to lead a difficult challenge in the community. Over the course of the season, several meetings and personal interactions play out which present difficulties in productivity due to individual differences in human relations capacity and varying psychological connections with the environment. In combination with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) the special nature of employee identification in the professional sport setting, (2) an array of political skills which are relevant and useful to the sport workplace, and (3) the role of perceived personal control in sport organizations. An overview of theory and its specific application to the case is provided along with discussion questions and answers to aid instructors in effectively engaging with students around the topical areas.
Steve Swanson and Samuel Y. Todd
Samuel Y. Todd, Charles W. Jones, and Walker Ross
This case provides a platform for instructors to engage in meaningful dialog with students on the topic of work motivation. Using Vroom’s Expectancy and Adam’s Equity Theory, readers encounter the dynamic relationships of four employees in a Professional Bowlers Association tour setting and examine how individual motivation can be a process that is informed by perceptions employees have. In particular, two characters, Shelley and Andy, begin to slowly experience an erosion of workplace morale and motivation as a function of the deteriorating relationships detailed in the case. Students then use theory to suggest a response that would be appropriate for the supervisor.
Samuel Y. Todd, T. Russell Crook, and Anthony G. Barilla
Most data involving organizations are hierarchical in nature and often contain variables measured at multiple levels of analysis. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is a relatively new and innovative statistical method that organizational scientists have used to alleviate some common problems associated with multilevel data, thus advancing our understanding of organizations. This article presents a broad overview of HLM’s logic through an empirical analysis and outlines how its use can strengthen sport management research. For illustration purposes, we use both HLM and the traditional linear regression model to analyze how organizational and individual factors in Major League Baseball impact individual players’ salaries. A key implication is that, depending on the method, parameter estimates differ because of the multilevel data structure and, thus, findings differ. We explain these differences and conclude by presenting theoretical discussions from strategic management and consumer behavior to provide a potential research agenda for sport management scholars.
Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd, and Brian Mihalik
Although the concept of social leverage has been a key component of research on mega sport events, authors know little about how the initial partnership between stakeholders of the event allows for social leveraging prior to the event. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand what intentions stakeholders of a newly formed interorganizational relationship for the 2019 Federation of International Basketball Associations World Cup have toward social leverage initiatives and whether they coordinate such efforts with other stakeholders. Data were collected through two rounds of interviews with high-ranking leaders in the stakeholder organizations. The authors found that social leverage is not part of the early planning for the event because (a) different stakeholders/organizations have little knowledge of social leverage, (b) the media amplifies current values and beliefs of the interorganizational relationship stakeholders, and (c) the Chinese culture has an implicit/explicit influence on the interorganizational relationship. The study contributes to our understanding of challenges surrounding social leveraging.
Samuel Y. Todd, Damon P. S. Andrew, and Ashleigh Lawrence
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen, and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.
Samuel Y. Todd, Marshall Magnusen, Damon P. S. Andrew, and Tony Lachowetz
Realistic job previews (RJPs) occur when both positive and negative information about a job is presented to a potential applicant. Because job seekers in the sport industry sometimes target opportunities based upon their personal affection for particular sports/sport organizations, the presentation of realistic information about the actual work could be key. The purpose of this two study, quasi-experimental research design was to examine the effect of RJPs on job seekers’ levels of attraction to sport job openings, perceptions of person-job fit, and job acceptance intentions. Study 1 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and attraction to the job changed after the job seeker encountered realistic information. Study 2 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and perceived job fit changed after encountering an RJP where perceived prestige was a factor. Thus, RJPs appear to influence the attractiveness, acceptability, and perceived fit of a job opening in sport.