This study examined the effectiveness of social learning (SL) or structural developmental (SD) teaching strategies on the moral development of elementary-age students. Participants were 204 physical education students in Grades 4,5, and 6; three classrooms in each grade were randomly assigned to control, SL, or SD groups. Self-report measures assessed moral judgment, reason, and intention; teachers rated prosocial behavior. By mid- and postintervention class-level analyses, the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher than the control on moral judgment and/or intention; by postintervention, the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. Mid- and postintervention student-level analyses showed that the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher on moral judgment, intention, and behavior; the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. These results provide support for the effectiveness of both social learning and structural-developmental teaching strategies on the moral development of children in physical education.
Sandra L. Gibbons and Vicki Ebbeck
Vicki Ebbeck and Sandra L. Gibbons
This study investigated the effectiveness of a Team Building Through Physical Challenges (TBPC; Glover and Midura, 1992) program on the self-conceptions of physical education students in Grades 6 and 7. The treatment group was exposed to one TBPC activity every second week for 8 months, while the second group completed the regular physical education curriculum without any TBPC activities. Data were analyzed using 2 (treatment/control) x 2 (preintervention/postintervention) x 2 (male/female) repeated measures analysis. Results at postintervention revealed that both male and female students in the treatment group were significantly higher on perceptions of global self-worth, athletic competence, physical appearance, and social acceptance than the control group. Female students in the treatment group were also significantly higher on perceptions of scholastic competence and behavioral conduct than female students in the control group. Effect sizes indicated that meaningful as well as significant differences in self-conceptions were created by the TBPC program.
Sandra L. Gibbons and Frank B. Byshakra
Little research has been conducted on the psychosocial outcomes that may occur in adapted populations who participate in Special Olympics. This study examined changes in perceived competence of participants and nonparticipants of a 1 1/2-day Special Olympics track and field meet. Pre- and posttest measures of the physical, cognitive, peer acceptance, and maternal acceptance subscales of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children were obtained from participants (N=24) and non-participant controls (N=24). A test of homogeneity of variance on pretest scores revealed that both groups were equivalent on the perceived competence and social acceptance measures. A MAHOVA was conducted to compare gain scores on all four measures between the two groups. Results indicated that both groups differed significantly on the perceived physical competence and peer acceptance measures. The stability of gains in perceived competence over time, and further examination of perceived competence and its correlates with adapted populations, were suggested as future directions for research.
Sandra L. Gibbons, Viviene A. Temple, and Louise Humbert
It is well documented that many young women become discontented with physical education in their high school years. The purpose of this investigation was to gain insight into the characteristics of nine senior elective physical education courses that were specifically designed to accommodate the needs and interests of female students. Data collection methods included focus group interviews with students; individual interviews with teachers; and analysis of course documents. The following themes are presented: (a) choice in what to learn and how to learn it; (b) all-female learning environment; (c) lifetime physical activities; (d) personalized assessment; and (e) responsive and flexible planning. Findings offer considerations for the development of physical education curricula that will gain and hold the interest of female high school students.
Sandra L. Gibbons, Vicki Ebbeck, Rebecca Y. Concepcion, and Kin-Kit Li
This study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-month Team Building through Physical Challenges (TBPC; Glover & Midura, 1992) program on the self-perceptions and perceived social regard of middle school physical education students (N = 1802). Data were analyzed using multilevel analyses where midpoint and final evaluations were conducted separately. Results revealed that at the midpoint evaluation, students in the experimental and control conditions were not different on any of the subscales assessed. At the end of the program, students in the experimental condition, compared with those in the control condition, showed significantly higher scores on 6 of the 10 subscales assessed and the effect sizes were medium to very large. The findings support the effectiveness of the TBPC program in creating positive psychological outcomes for students in a field-based setting.