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Sandra A. Stroot and Kay M. Williamson

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Hal A. Lawson and Sandra A. Stroot

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Sandra A. Stroot, Nell Faucette and Susan Schwager

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Judith L. Oslin, Sandra Stroot and Daryl Siedentop

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a component-specific instruction (CSI) intervention to enhance overarm throw development in preschool children. The study also examined the sequence of components within the intervention, a force production sequence (FPS) versus a forward-chaining sequence (FCS). During daily inspection of the data, investigators noted changes in efficiency levels of nontargeted components. Therefore, a third research question emerged regarding the ancillary effects of CSI on efficiency levels of nontargeted components. For all participants, intervention was required on two or more of the following: step, rotation/backswing, elbow/backswing, forearm/forward, and rotation forward. CSI was found to be effective for improving the efficiency of the targeted component as well as overall throwing efficiency. Ancillary effects occurred repeatedly across nontargeted components during all but one condition of CSI. During follow-up, the degree to which efficiency levels were maintained varied from child to child.

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Sandra A. Stroot and Pamela J. Morton

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Sandra A. Stroot and Judith L. Oslin

The purpose of this study was to (a) determine preservice teachers’ ability to use component-specific feedback to influence student performance on the overhand throw and (b) to develop an instrument to record teachers’ verbal behaviors concurrent with student performance. Preservice teachers used a force-production sequence of overhand throw components (Siedentop, Herkowitz, & Rink, 1984) to intervene upon sport-skill performance of elementary age children. Techniques for observing, recording, and accessing overhand throwing performance and the subsequent instructional statements of the preservice teachers were presented, using the sport skill process variable assessment instrument (SSPVA). Analyses of data suggested three major patterns of instructional feedback statements provided by preservice teachers: (a) Preservice teachers often provided feedback on a component that had been consistently demonstrated at a high level of efficiency; (b) some components were not demonstrated at consistently high efficiency levels, yet little or no specific feedback was directed toward these components; and (c) when preservice teachers were able to recognize errors and provide appropriate feedback, change did occur.

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Sandra A. Stroot, Connie Collier, Mary O’Sullivan and Kathy England

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Mary O’Sullivan, Sandra A. Stroot and Deborah Tannehill

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Diana L. Jones, Deborah Tannehill, Mary O’Sullivan and Sandra A. Stroot