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Sandy K. Beveridge and Sandy K. Gangstead

This study investigated the effects of teaching experience and instruction on visual retention and knowledge of selected sports skills. Prior to and after 30 hours of instruction, 31 experienced teachers and 29 undergraduates were administered the Utah Skills Analysis Test (USKAT) to assess both visual retention of performance and knowledge of correct motor patterns. Before instruction, teachers performed slightly better than undergraduates on the perceptual portion of USKAT, whereas there were no significant differences on the knowledge portion. A repeated measures analysis indicated significant treatment effects across groups on both perceptual and knowledge measures, with undergraduates exhibiting greater pretest to posttest gains than teachers on both dependent variables. A one-way ANOVA conducted on gain score data of subjects blocked into high, medium, and low functional performance levels based upon pretreatment scores revealed significant differences in perceptual performance between the blocks. It was concluded that (a) both teachers and undergraduates demonstrated the ability to improve performance in qualitative skills analysis, (b) undergraduates appear more responsive to specific instructional protocol than experienced teachers, and (c) entry level performance may influence the impact of the protocol on sport skill analysis performance.

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Philip W. Scruggs, Sandy K. Beveridge and Doris L. Watson

Fifth-grade students’ physical activity levels were examined via heart rate telemetry and pedometry during school fitness and recess breaks. Twenty-seven students with a mean age of 11.03 (-.32) years participated in morning recess (MR), lunch recess (LR), and fitness breaks (FB) for three days. Structured FB’s consisted of students engaging in locomotor and nonlocomotor activities within an obstacle course framework, while recess breaks followed a traditional model. Results from repeated measures ANOVAs indicated students engaged in significantly more physical activity during FB than MR and LR. Fitness breaks provided a viable method for increasing children’s school time activity levels.