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  • Author: Santiago Lopez x
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Santiago Lopez, Jan G. Bourgois, Enrico Tam, Paolo Bruseghini and Carlo Capelli

Purpose:

To explore the cardiovascular and metabolic responses of 9 Optimist sailors (12.7 ± 0.8 y, 153 ± 9 cm, 41 ± 6 kg, sailing career 6.2 ± 1 y, peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] 50.5 ± 4.5 mL · min−1 · kg−1) during on-water upwind sailing with various wind intensities (W).

Methods:

In a laboratory session, peak V̇O2, beat-by-beat cardiac output (Q̇), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (f H) were measured using a progressive cycle ramp protocol. Steady-state V̇O2, Q̇, MAP, and f H at 4 submaximal workloads were also determined. During 2 on-water upwind sailing tests (constant course and with tacks), W, Q̇, MAP, and f H were measured for 15 min. On-water V̇O2 was estimated on the basis of steady-state f H measured on water and of the individual ΔV̇O2f H relationship obtained in the laboratory.

Results:

V̇O2, f H, and Q̇ expressed as percentage of the corresponding peak values were linearly related with W; exercise intensity during on-water sailing corresponded to 46–48% of V̇O2peak. MAP and total vascular peripheral resistance (TPR = MAP/Q̇) were larger (P < .005) during on-water tests (+39% and +50%, respectively) than during cycling, and they were correlated with W. These responses were responsible for larger values of the double (DP) and triple (TP) products of the heart during sailing than during cycling (P < .005) (+37% and +32%, respectively).

Conclusions:

These data indicate that the cardiovascular system was particularly stressed during upwind sailing even though the exercise intensity of this activity was not particularly high.

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Carlos Amo, Miguel Ortiz del Castillo, Rafael Barea, Luis de Santiago, Alejandro Martínez-Arribas, Pedro Amo-López and Luciano Boquete

Objective:

Propose a simplified method applicable in routine clinical practice that uses EEG to assess induced gamma-band activity (GBA) in the 30–90 Hz frequency range in cerebral motor areas.

Design:

EEG recordings (25 healthy subjects) of cerebral activity (at rest, motor task). GBA was obtained as power spectral density (PSD). GBA — defined as the gamma index (Iγ) — was calculated using the basal GBA (γB) and motor GBA (γMOV) PSD values.

Results:

The mean values of Iγ were (Iγ R (right hand) = 1.30, Iγ L (left hand) = 1.22). Manual laterality showed a correlation with Iγ.

Conclusions:

Iγ may provide a useful way of indirectly assessing operation of activated motor neuronal circuits. It could be applied to diagnosis of motor area pathologies and as follow up in rehabilitation processes. Likewise, Iγ could enable the assessment of motor capacity, physical training and manual laterality in sport medicine.

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Thomas Yvert, Catalina Santiago, Elena Santana-Sosa, Zoraida Verde, Felix Gómez-Gallego, Luis Lopez-Mojares, Margarita Pérez, Nuria Garatachea and Alejandro Lucia

In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), physical capacity (PC) has been correlated with mortality risk. In turn, PC is dependent on genetic factors. This study examines several polymorphisms associated with PC and healthrelated phenotype traits (VO2peak, FEV1, FVC, PImax and muscular strength) in a group of children with CF (n = 66, primary purpose). The same analyses were also performed in a control group of healthy children (n = 113, secondary purpose). The polymorphisms determined were classified as muscle function polymorphisms (ACE rs1799752; AGT rs699; ACTN3 rs1815739; PTK2 rs7843014 and rs7460; MSTN rs1805086; TRHR rs7832552; NOS3 rs2070744) or energy metabolism polymorphisms (PPARGC1A rs8192678; NRF1 rs6949152; NRF2 rs12594956; TFAM rs1937; PPARD rs2267668; ACSL1 rs6552828). No significant polymorphism/phenotype correlations were detected in children with CF, with marginal associations being observed between NOS3 rs2070744 and VO2peak and FEV1, as well as between PPARGC1A rs8192678 and FEV1. Overall, similar findings were observed in the control group, i.e., no major associations. The PC-related polymorphisms examined seem to have no effects on the PC or health of children with CF.