The present study aimed to explore the interactions and influences that occurred on Twitter after Joey Julius’s (NCAA athlete, Penn State Football) and Mike Marjama’s (MLB player, Seattle Mariners) eating-disorder (ED) diagnoses were revealed. Corresponding with the publicizing of each athlete’s ED, all publicly tagged Twitter media using @joey_julius, Joey Julius, @MMarjama, and Mike Marjama were collected using Netlytic software and analyzed. Text analysis revealed that the conversation was supportive and focused on feelings and size. Social network analysis, based on 5 network properties, showed that Joey Julius invoked a larger conversation but that both athletes’ conversations were single sided. Athlete advocacy on social media should be further explored, as it may contribute to changing societal opinion regarding social issues such as EDs.
Fallon R. Mitchell, Sara Santarossa and Sarah J. Woodruff
Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham
ESPN The Magazine’s The Body Issue positions itself as an inclusive and sport-focused publication. With a focus on gender, the purpose of the current study was to examine the online thoughts and opinions that resulted from #BodyIssue on Instagram. In addition, the Instagram posting activity of ESPN (@espn) and espnW (@espnw) as it pertained to the promotion of the featured athletes and the Instagram accounts of the athletes featured in the 2016 Body Issue were explored. A text and network analysis surrounding #BodyIssue for both male and female Body Issue athletes was conducted using the Netlytic program. Manual Instagram tracking of @espn and @espnw, as well as the featured athletes’ accounts, was performed. In its entirety, this study was conducted between June 29 and July 13, 2016. Online thoughts and opinions, although differing by gender, were generally positive, with a large focus on physical form, not sexuality and/or nudity. Furthermore, a gender disparity was reported in regard to ESPN Inc.’s Instagram posting activity, with @espn choosing only to celebrate its male Body Issue athletes on Instagram and @espnw only posting about 2 of the 9 female athletes. There was a significant difference in the number of Instagram followers for the female athletes 1 wk prior to the online release of the issue (M = 105,767.78, SD = 141,193.71) and 1 wk postrelease (M = 109,742.56, SD = 142,890.11), t(8) = −4.29, p = .003. Further analyses of other Body Issue editions is needed to continue investigating this gender disparity and its potential impact on athletes, sport culture, and social attitudes.
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa
Results of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) consistently show acceptable validity and reliability for children/adolescents who are sighted and those who have visual impairments. Results of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) are often valid and reliable for children who are sighted, but its psychometric properties are unknown for children with visual impairments. Participants (N = 66; M age = 12.93, SD = 2.40) with visual impairments completed the TGMD-2 and TGMD-3. The TGMD-3 results from this sample revealed high internal consistency (ω = .89–.95), strong interrater reliability (ICC = .91–.92), convergence with the TGMD-2 (r = .96), and good model fit, χ2(63) = 80.10, p = .072, χ2/df ratio = 1.27, RMSEA = .06, CFI = .97. Researchers and practitioners can use the TGMD-3 to assess the motor skill performance for children/adolescents with visual impairments and most likely produce results that are valid and reliable.