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B. Ann Boyce and Sarah M. Bingham

The present study investigated the effect of three goal-setting groups (self-set, assigned, and control) and three levels of self-efficacy (low, medium, and high) on bowling performance of college students (N = 288). The performance/retention trials were analyzed in a 3 × 2 × 10 (Goal Conditions × Self-Efficacy Levels × Trials) ANCOVA design, with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline performance as the covariate. Results of the data analysis revealed a significant main effect for self-efficacy (SE) levels for males and females. Individuals at high and medium SE levels performed significantly better than those at a low SE level. The nonsignificant main effect for goal groups was attributed to the spontaneous goal-setting behavior of the control group. Finally, there was a main effect for trials and planned comparisons indicated that as trials progressed female students improved. Evidence of a performance plateau was present for male students, as they showed marginal improvement across trials.