Multifractal analyses have been used in recent years as a way of studying balance, with the goal of understanding the patterns of movement of the center of pressure at different spatial scales. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was used to compare obese and nonobese children to investigate the cause of previously demonstrated deficiencies in balance for obese children. Twenty-two children (11 obese and 11 nonobese), aged 8–15 years, performed 30-s trials of bilateral static balance on a plantar pressure distribution measuring device. Both the obese and nonobese groups demonstrated greater persistence for small fluctuations, but the effect was greater in the obese group. This was particularly evident with the eyes closed, where significant differences between the obese and nonobese were observed for small fluctuations. These results demonstrate that balance deficiencies in obese children may be the result of decreased proprioceptive abilities in obese children.
Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills
Mostafa Yaghoubi, Mohamad Mahdi Esfehani, Hossein Asghar Hosseini, Yaser Alikhajeh and Sarah P. Shultz
The aim of this study was to compare muscle activity patterns between inexperienced and experienced water polo players while taking an overhead shot. The study was carried out with a group of 12 water polo players and an inexperienced group of 10 healthy participants. Signals were recorded by surface electromyography from six different muscles. The average and standard deviation of the normalized electrical activity, time to peak, time broadness, and muscle sequencing during the overhead shot were determined for each muscle in both groups and compared with each other. In water polo players, the normalized electrical activities of triceps brachii, pectoralis major, and wrist flexors were greater than other muscles, while in the inexperienced group the triceps brachii specifically played an important role. There was minimal activation of the middle deltoid and biceps brachii in water polo players. Increased times to peak and time broadness of muscles were found in the inexperienced group compared to experienced water polo players; this difference may be explained by different neuromuscular proprioception. Only experienced water polo players activated the observed muscles in a specific sequence, from proximal to distal. Therefore, coaches should emphasize smooth and quick transitions from proximal to distal segments, with less importance placed on individual muscle strengthening.
Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W. Fink, Wyatt H. Page and Sarah P. Shultz
Purpose: This study examined differences in lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation patterns between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children during stationary exercises (running in place, frontal kick, and butt kick) at submaximal intensity. Methods: Healthy children (aged 10–13 y) were stratified into OW (n = 10; body fat percentage: 34.97 [8.60]) and NW (n = 15; body fat percentage: 18.33 [4.87]). Electromyography was recorded for rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior. In addition, the ratings of perceived exertion and range of motion of hip, knee, and ankle joints were collected during stationary exercises. Repeated-measures analysis of variance compared muscle activation, range of motion, and ratings of perceived exertion between groups and exercises. Friedman test examined sequencing of muscles recruitment. Results: Compared with NW, OW experienced significantly greater ratings of perceived exertion (13.7 [0.8] vs 11.7 [0.7]; P < .001) and electromyography amplitude in all muscles apart from vastus lateralis during stationary exercises. In addition, NW children used more consistent muscles’ recruitment pattern in comparison with OW children. The range of motion was similar between groups at all joints. Conclusion: OW children may adopt a more active neuromuscular strategy to provide greater stability and propulsion during stationary exercises. Stationary exercise can be prescribed to strengthen lower extremity muscles in OW children, but mode and intensity must be considered.
Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W. Fink, Wyatt H. Page, Ali Heydari and Sarah P. Shultz
Purpose: This study examined lower extremity kinematics in healthy weight (HW) and overweight (OW) children during water- and land-based stationary exercises (stationary running, frontal kick, and butt kick) at light submaximal intensity. Methods: Participants included OW (N = 10; body fat percentage: 34.97 [8.60]) and HW (N = 15; body fat percentage: 18.33 [4.87]) children, aged 10 to 13 years. Spatiotemporal data, lower extremity joint kinematics, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during water- and land-based stationary exercises. Repeated measures analysis of variance compared kinematic variables and RPE between groups and environments. A polygon area function compared coordination patterns between environments. Results: RPE responses were significantly greater in OW than HW children on land (13.6 [0.7] vs 11.6 [0.7]; P < .001), whereas the RPE responses were similar between groups in water (11.2 [0.7] vs 11.1 [0.8]; P > .05). OW children were significantly more upright than HW children during land-based exercise, whereas there were no differences observed between groups during aquatic-based exercise. The duration of stance and swing phases, angular velocity, and cadence were significantly lower in water than on land. Conclusion: Compared with HW children, OW children performed stationary exercises in a more upright posture on land, with higher RPE. However, these differences diminished in water. Aquatic-based exercise may be effective in minimizing the effects of excess mass on OW children’s ability to complete physical activity.
Stacey M. Kung, Philip W. Fink, Stephen J. Legg, Ajmol Ali and Sarah P. Shultz
Purpose: To investigate whether youth and adults can perceive differences in exertion between walking and running at speeds near the preferred transition speed (PTS) and if there are age-related differences in these perceptions. Methods: A total of 49 youth (10–12 y, n = 21; 13–14 y, n = 10; 15–17 y, n = 18) and 13 adults (19–29 y) completed a walk-to-run transition protocol to determine PTS and peak oxygen uptake. The participants walked and ran on a treadmill at 5 speeds (PTS–0.28 m·s−1, PTS–0.14 m·s−1, PTS, PTS+0.14 m·s−1, PTS+0.28 m·s−1) and rated perceived exertion using the OMNI Perceived Exertion (OMNI-RPE) scale. Oxygen consumption was measured during the walk-to-run transition protocol to obtain the relative intensity (percentage of peak oxygen uptake) at PTS. OMNI-RPE scores at all speeds and percentage of peak oxygen uptake at PTS were compared between age groups. Results: The 10- to 12-year-olds transitioned at a higher percentage of peak oxygen uptake than adults (64.54 [10.18] vs 52.22 [11.40], respectively; P = .035). The 10- to 14-year-olds generally reported higher OMNI-RPE scores than the 15- to 17-year-olds and adults (P < .050). In addition, the 10- to 14-year-olds failed to distinguish differences in OMNI-RPE between walking and running at PTS and PTS+0.14 m·s−1. Conclusions: Children aged 10–14 years are less able to distinguish whether walking or running requires less effort at speeds near the PTS compared with adults. The inability to judge which gait mode is less demanding could hinder the ability to minimize locomotive demands.
Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom
It has been suggested that foot type considers not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (overpronation, normal, oversupination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18–77 years) were classified as cavus (N = 24), rectus (N = 54), or planus (N = 44) using standard clinical measures. Custom jigs assessed foot structure and flexibility. Foot function was assessed using an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device. Canonical regression analyses were applied separately to extract essential structure, flexibility, and function variables. A third canonical regression analysis was performed on the extracted variables to identify a combined model. The initial combined model included 30 extracted variables; however 5 terminal variables (malleolar valgus index, arch height index while sitting, first metatarsophalangeal joint laxity while standing, pressure-time integral and maximum contact area of medial arch) were able to correctly predict 80.7% of foot types. These remaining variables focused on specific foot characteristics (hindfoot alignment, arch height, midfoot mechanics, Windlass mechanism) that could be essential to discriminating foot type.