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Sascha Ketelhut, Sebastian R. Ketelhut, and Kerstin Ketelhut

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based exercise intervention on endurance performance (EP), blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in children. Methods: A total of 105 students (mean age = 8.2 [0.6] y; 51% girls; body mass index = 17.8 [3.0] kg/m2) were randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 51) and control group (CG, n = 54). During a 37-week experimental period, the IG received an exercise intervention (2 × 45 min/wk) in addition to their regular school physical education class (3 × 45 min/wk). EP, peripheral and central BP, pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, augmentation index, and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed. Results: Following the intervention, significant changes (P < .05) in EP, peripheral and central systolic BP, pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, augmentation index, and aortic pulse wave velocity were found in the IG. Children in the CG displayed significant changes in peripheral and central diastolic BP. An analysis of the baseline-to-post changes revealed significant between-group differences in EP (P < .001), pulse pressure (P = .028), augmentation pressure (P = .007), and aortic pulse wave velocity (P = .037) that favored the IG and in peripheral and central diastolic BP that favored the CG. Conclusion: The school-based exercise intervention had beneficial effects not only on EP but also on different hemodynamic parameters.

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Laura Hottenrott, Sascha Ketelhut, Christoph Schneider, Thimo Wiewelhove, and Alexander Ferrauti

Postexercise recovery is a fundamental component for continuous performance enhancement. Due to physiological and morphological changes in aging and alterations in performance capacity, athletes of different ages may recover at different rates from physical exercise. Differences in body composition, physiological function, and exercise performance between men and women may also have a direct influence on restoration processes. Purpose: This brief review examines current research to indicate possible differences in recovery processes between male and female athletes of different age groups. The paper focuses on postexercise recovery following sprint and endurance tests and tries to identify determinants that modulate possible differences in recovery between male and female subjects of different age groups. Results: The literature analysis indicates age- and sex-dependent differences in short- and long-term recovery. Short-term recovery differs among children, adults, and masters. Children have shorter lactate half-life and a faster cardiac and respiratory recovery compared to adults. Additionally, children and masters require shorter recovery periods during interval bouts than trained adults. Trained women show a slower cardiac and respiratory recovery compared to trained men. Long-term recovery is strongly determined by the extent of muscle damage. Trained adults tend to have more extensive muscle damage compared to masters and children. Conclusion: The influence of age and sex on the recovery process varies among the different functional systems and depends on the time of the recovery processes. Irrespective of age and sex, the performance capacity of the individual determines the recovery process after high-intensity and endurance exercise.