Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based exercise intervention on endurance performance (EP), blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in children. Methods: A total of 105 students (mean age = 8.2 [0.6] y; 51% girls; body mass index = 17.8 [3.0] kg/m2) were randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 51) and control group (CG, n = 54). During a 37-week experimental period, the IG received an exercise intervention (2 × 45 min/wk) in addition to their regular school physical education class (3 × 45 min/wk). EP, peripheral and central BP, pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, augmentation index, and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed. Results: Following the intervention, significant changes (P < .05) in EP, peripheral and central systolic BP, pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, augmentation index, and aortic pulse wave velocity were found in the IG. Children in the CG displayed significant changes in peripheral and central diastolic BP. An analysis of the baseline-to-post changes revealed significant between-group differences in EP (P < .001), pulse pressure (P = .028), augmentation pressure (P = .007), and aortic pulse wave velocity (P = .037) that favored the IG and in peripheral and central diastolic BP that favored the CG. Conclusion: The school-based exercise intervention had beneficial effects not only on EP but also on different hemodynamic parameters.