Since its humble beginnings at the end of World War II, wheelchair basketball has incorporated a classification system for its players. The classification system ensures equal representation among team players and fosters positions and roles that are unique to the various levels of disability represented on a team (Goodwin et al., 2009). The increasingly competitive nature of this global game has necessitated an increasingly high level of coaching expertise. The purpose of this commentary is to take a practical look at the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation Player Classification System and the challenges it presents to a wheelchair basketball coach during the chaos of a game.
Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão, and Gordon A. Bloom
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the career development and learning pathways of Paralympic head coaches who previously competed as Paralympic athletes. Each coach participated in a semistructured interview. A thematic analysis of the data revealed three higher order themes, which were called becoming a coach, learning to coach, and lifelong learning and teaching. Across these themes, participants discussed interactions with other coaches and athletes with a disability, learning from mentors and coaching clinics, as well as limited formal educational opportunities they experienced transitioning from athlete to head coach. The findings revealed that they acquired most of their knowledge from a combination of knowledge gained as athletes and informal sources, including trial and error. They also stressed the need for enhanced recruiting of parasport coaches and parasport coach education opportunities that would enhance programs for athletes with physical disabilities, from grassroots to Paralympic levels.
Shahin Minaei, Morteza Jourkesh, Richard B. Kreider, Scott C. Forbes, Tacito P. Souza-Junior, Steven R. McAnulty, and Douglas Kalman
The purpose was to investigate the effects of CYP1A2 −163C > A polymorphism on the effects of acute caffeine (CAF) supplementation on anaerobic power in trained males. Sixteen trained males (age: 21.6 ± 7.1 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass: 72.15 ± 6.8 kg) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) controlled crossover design. Participants supplemented with CAF (6 mg/kg of body mass) and an isovolumetric PLA (maltodextrin) in random order and separated by 7 days, before an all-out 30-s anaerobic cycling test to determine peak, average, and minimum power output, and fatigue index. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted to identify each participants CYP1A2 genotype. Six participants expressed AA homozygote and 10 expressed C alleles. There was a treatment by genotype interaction for peak power output (p = .041, η2 = .265, observed power = 0.552) with only those expressing AA genotype showing improvement following CAF supplementation compared with PLA (CAF: 693 ± 108 watts vs. PLA: 655 ± 97 watts; p = .039), while no difference between treatments was noted in those expressing C alleles (CAF: 614 ± 92 watts vs. PLA: 659 ± 144 watts; p = .135). There were no other interaction or main effects for average or minimum power output, or fatigue index (p > .05). In conclusion, the ingestion of 6 mg/kg of CAF improved peak power output only in participants with the AA genotype compared with PLA; however, expression of the CYP1A2 did not influence average or minimum power output or fatigue index.
Nora R. Decher, Douglas J. Casa, Susan W. Yeargin, Matthew S. Ganio, Michelle L. Levreault, Catie L. Dann, Camille T. James, Megan A. McCaffrey, Caitlin B. O’Connor, and Scott W. Brown
To assess the hydration status and level of hydration knowledge of youths at summer sports camps.
Sixty-seven active youths, 57 males (mean ± SD, 12 ± 2 y, 136 ± 16 cm, 50.6 ± 21.1 kg) and 10 females (13 ± 2 y, 153 ± 8 cm, 45.2 ± 9.0 kg) participated in 4 d of sports camp. Hydration status was assessed before the first practice (AM) and after the second practice (PM). Participants completed suriveys assessing hydration knowledge (HAQ) and hydration habits on day 3 and a self-assessment (EQ#1).
Mean AM urine specific gravity (USG) and urine osmolality (Uosm) scores ranged from minimal to significant dehydration across 4 d, even when temperatures were mild. Correlations between hydration indices and EQ#1, ranging from 0.11 to −0.51, were statistically significant (P < .05), indicating that subjects recognized when they were doing a good or bad job hydrating. HAQ did not correlate strongly with hydration indices suggesting other impediments to hydration. Thirst correlated negatively with EQ#1 (from −0.29 to −0.60).
Hydration at summer sports camp is a concern and special efforts need to be made to help youths develop hydration strategies.