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Scott J. Montain, Samuel N. Cheuvront and Henry C. Lukaski

Context:

Uncertainty exists regarding the effect of sustained sweating on sweat mineral-element composition.

Purpose:

To determine the effect of multiple hours of exercise-heat stress on sweat mineral concentrations.

Methods:

Seven heat-acclimated subjects (6 males, 1 female) completed 5 × 60 min of treadmill exercise (1.56 m/s, 2% grade) with 20 min rest between exercise periods in 2 weather conditions (27 °C, 40% relative humidity, 1 m/s and 35 °C, 30%, 1 m/s). Sweat was collected from a sweat-collection pouch attached to the upper back during exercise bouts 1, 3, and 5. Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrography.

Results:

At 27 °C, sweat sodium (863 [563] µg/mL; mean [SD]), potassium (222 [48] µg/mL), calcium (16 [7]) µg/mL), magnesium (1265 [566] ng/mL), and copper (80 [56] ng/mL) remained similar to baseline over 7 h of exercise-heat stress, whereas sweat zinc declined 42–45% after the initial hour of exercise-heat stress (Ex1 = 655 [362], Ex3 = 382 [168], Ex5 = 355 [288] µg/mL, P < 0.05). Similar outcomes were observed for sweat zinc at 35 °C when sweat rates were higher. Sweat rate had no effect on sweat trace-element composition.

Conclusions:

Sweat sodium, potassium, and calcium losses during multiple hours of sustained sweating can be predicted from initial sweat composition. Estimates of sweat zinc losses, however, will be overestimated if sweat zinc conservation is not accounted for in sweat zinc-loss estimates.

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Tracey J. Smith, Scott J. Montain, Danielle Anderson and Andrew J. Young

Purpose:

To examine how different proteins in a carbohydrate-protein beverage affect postprandial amino acid (AA), glucose, and insulin responses.

Methods:

Two randomized, repeated-measures experiments were performed. In one, 10 volunteers drank 3 carbohydrate-protein beverages (380 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 19 g protein, 2 g fat) in separate (>7 days) trials, each differing in protein type. All drinks consisted of cocoa (4 g) and nonfat dry milk (1 g) supplemented with casein (CAS), whey (WP), or a casein and whey blend (CAS-WP). Ten additional volunteers consumed the same drinks after 60 min of varying-intensity exercise (60% and 85% VO2peak). Blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP), and AAs were measured every 15–30 min for 4 hr after beverage consumption.

Results:

Branchedchain AA concentrations peaked at 30 min and did not differ between beverages at rest (0.69 ± 0.12 mmol/L) or postexercise (0.70 ± 0.07 mmol/L). There were no significant differences between beverages with respect to initial (time 0–60) or total area under the curve (time 0–240) for any outcome measures at rest or postexercise.

Conclusion:

High-carbohydrate beverages containing various proportions of milk proteins procured from a supplier to the commercial industry had no impact on AA concentration. Retrospective chemical analysis of commercial proteins showed that casein was partially hydrolyzed; therefore, consumers should carefully consider the manufacturer (to ensure that the product contains intact protein) or other factors (i.e., cost or taste) when procuring these beverages for their purported physiological effects.

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Scott J. Montain, Ronald J. Maughan and Michael N. Sawka

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Scott J. Montain, Ronald J. Maughan and Michael N. Sawka

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Samuel N. Cheuvront, Robert Carter III, Scott J. Montain and Michael N. Sawka

The purpose of this study was to quantify the variability and stability of 1st morning body mass (BM) fluctuations during daily exercise in the heat while following traditional fluid intake guidance. Data from 65 men were examined retrospectively. BM fluctuations were monitored over 4 to 15 consecutive days. Group daily variation in BM was 0.51 ± 0.20 kg. Group coefficient of variation was 0.66 ± 0.24%, normally distributed, and not related to either absolute BM (r = 0.04) or number of measurements (r = 0.34). Three days resulted in a similar variability estimate compared to 6 or 9 d, although precision was improved with 9 d. In conclusion, 3 consecutive BM measurements provide an accurate assessment of daily BM variability, which is less than 1% for active men when replacing 100% of sweat losses during exercise. The data also suggest that daily BM is a sufficiently stable physiological parameter for potential daily fluid balance monitoring.

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Matthew R. Ely, Robert W. Kenefick, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Troy Chinevere, Craig P. Lacher, Henry C. Lukaski and Scott J. Montain

Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of whether the reported HA effect is real or artifact of surface contamination.

Purpose:

To measure sweat mineral concentrations serially during HA and determine if surface contamination plays a role in the reported mineral reductions.

Methods:

Calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in sweat obtained from 17 male volunteers using an arm bag on Day 1, 5, and 10 of a HA protocol. To study the role of contamination, sweat was simultaneously (n = 10 subjects) sampled twice daily from a cleaned site (WASH) and unclean site (NO WASH) on the scapular surface.

Results:

Sweat Ca, Cu, and Mg from Arm Bag trended progressively downward from Day 1 to Day 10 of HA (p = .10–0.25). Micromineral concentrations from the WASH site did not change between Day 1, 5, or 10 (Ca = 0.30 ± 0.12 mmol/L, Cu 0.41 ± 0.53 μmol/L; Zn 1.11 ± 0.80 μmol/L). Surface contamination can confound sweat mineral estimates, as sweat Ca and Cu from NO WASH site were initially higher than WASH (p < .05) but became similar to WASH when sampled serially.

Conclusion:

Heat acclimation does not confer reductions in sweat Ca, Cu, Mg, or Zn. When the skin surface is not cleaned, mineral residue inflates initial sweat mineral concentrations. Earlier reports of micromineral reductions during HA may have been confounded by interday cleaning variability.