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Se-yeon Park and Won-gyu Yoo


The purpose of this study was to measure muscle activation during ascending and descending phases of the push-up exercise on both stable and unstable support surfaces.


Fourteen asymptomatic male amateur badminton players. During push-up exercises on stable and unstable bases, muscle activation measurements were collected with phase divisions (ascending and descending phase).


Electromyography (EMG) was utilized to measure activation of the upper trapezius (UT) and lower trapezius (LT), middle serratus anterior (MSA) and lower serratus anterior (LSA), pectoralis major (PM), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles.


An unstable support surface produced significantly greater activation of the UT, LT, LSA, and PM muscles than a stable support surface (p < 0.05). The MSA, LSA, TB, and PM muscles demonstrated greater activation during the ascending phase than the descending phase of the push-up exercise (p < 0.05).


The unstable support surface appeared to produce relatively greater activation of the LSA than that of the MSA. The descending phase of the push-up did not demonstrate a higher level of activation for any of the muscles tested.

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Jwa-jun Kim, So-youn Ann and Se-yeon Park


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of visual trace on shoulder muscle activation during diagonal pattern of exercises. Sixteen healthy male participants volunteered to participate.


Repeated-measure design.


Laboratory setting.


Sixteen physically active male participants volunteered to participate.


Five muscles of the shoulder were investigated during standing performance of diagonal shoulder exercises with and without visual trace. Two patterns of the diagonal exercises were used: diagonal 1 flexion (D1F) and diagonal 2 fexion (D2F). Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used, with factors being the presence of visual trace and exercise variations.

Main Outcome Measure:

Electromyography (EMG).


The average muscle activity values of the lower trapezius and anterior deltoid were higher with the D2F compared with the D1F (P < .05). The visual trace effect was observed within the serratus anterior, with values significantly greater in exercise with visual trace (P < .05). There was a significant increase of the lower trapezius during the exercise with the visual trace condition compared with the exercise without visual trace, which was only observed during D2F (P < .05).


Present results suggest that the D2F exercise pattern is effective for activating lower trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles. The visual trace condition has the additional advantage of activating the scapulothoracic muscle activities depending on the specific pattern of diagonal shoulder exercise.

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Se-yeon Park, Won-gyu Yoo, Hun Kwon, Dong-hyun Kim, Si-eun Lee and Mi-jin Park

Activation of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and triceps brachii muscles was measured, while center of pressure excursion beneath the hands was simultaneously monitored, during the performance of a push-up exercise on both a stable and an unstable base of support. The activation levels of all muscles were significantly greater for the unstable support surface when compared to those for a stable support surface (p < 0.05). A negative correlation was found between activation of the serriatus anterior muscle and center of pressure excursion (r = -0.64, p < 0.05). Performance of the push-up exercise on an unstable support surface appears to elicit greater muscle activation than a standard push-up exercise performed on a stable support surface.