The relative age effect (RAE) has become a well-studied consequence of organizations utilizing a cutoff date to establish age cohorts. Within this case study, students will explore and learn how to perform various statistical analyses (i.e., chi-square, effect sizes, standardized residuals) to determine whether the RAE exists among those who competed in the 2011 and 2012 Little League World Series (LLWS). Students will learn about the mission and history of Little League Baseball (LLB) and discuss potential changes and/or strategies that could be used by the organization to make the LLWS more inclusive. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from this case study to critically analyze the current status of various other sport organizations to help develop potential strategies to ensure fairness and equality for all participating athletes.
Jess C. Dixon, Laura Chittle and Sean Horton
Jordan Deneau, Sean Horton and Paula M. van Wyk
In an attempt to offset the widespread anticipated impact of aging populations, active aging programs have become nearly ubiquitous in Western society. Nonetheless, older adults tend to remain relatively inactive. The perspectives of older adults constitute a key resource to help guide active aging efforts. Moreover, gender-sensitized and ecological approaches to physical activity programming may contribute markedly to the efficacy and inclusiveness of such initiatives. Considering the paucity of research regarding older men’s suggestions for physical activity programs, this study involved semistructured interviews to ascertain the perceptions among 19 older men (aged 75–90 years). Through a thematic analysis, seven key attributes emerged that participants believed physical activity programs should possess: affordable, available, accessible, adapted, alternative, accompanied, and awareness. The complexities and implications pertaining to these attributes are discussed in the context of ecological theory and ideals of masculinity.
Joseph Baker, Janice Deakin, Sean Horton and G. William Pearce
Demographic studies indicate a remarkable aging trend in North America. An accurate profile of the decline in physical and cognitive capabilities over time is essential to our understanding of the aging process. This study examined the maintenance of skilled performance across the careers of 96 professional golfers. Data were collected on scoring average, driving distance, driving accuracy, greens in regulation, putts per round, and number of competitive rounds played using online data archives. Analyses indicate that performance in this activity can be maintained to a greater extent than in activities relying on biologically constrained abilities. Although the generalizability of these results to “normal” aging populations is not known, they suggest that acquired skills can be maintained to a large extent in the face of advancing age.