The purpose of these studies was to examine the relationship between perceptions of exercise-related changes (i.e., perceived mastery and physical change) and certainty with regard to the self-as-exerciser. It was hypothesized that seeing “change” would be associated with more favorable levels of exercise self-certainty and behavior relative to “no change.” Online surveys were repeatedly administered across 4 months (Study 1) and 4 weeks (Study 2) to 196 university students (M age = 20.17), and 250 community dwellers (M age = 38.44), respectively. Data were analyzed via latent variable modeling procedures. Consistent with hypotheses, latent classes (i.e., subgroups) reflecting interindividual differences in levels and trajectories of perceived change were associated with distinct patterns of selfcertainty and exercise behavior. The findings suggest that adults who experience mastery of skills and physiological changes also have greater self-certainty and exercise more regularly than those who do not see progress or feel as certain of their exercise identity.
Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen
Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is known to benefit cognition among older adults, but the impact of active travel is unclear. To explore this relationship, data from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (N = 2,702; mean age = 70) were retrieved on the self-reported frequency and duration of active travel (walking/cycling for transport, >20 min), LTPA engagement (e.g., sport), and three cognitive outcomes. Four groups were created according to physical activity guidelines (600 metabolic equivalent of task/week): inactive (n = 1,790), active travelers (n = 210), engaging in LTPA (n = 579), and engaging in both (n = 123). Analysis of covariance (and follow-up comparisons) revealed a significant main effect for each cognition variable, after adjusting for the covariates, indicating that those engaging in LTPA performed the best. Although correlational, these findings suggest that LTPA engagement may be important for cognition among older adults, but active travel did not provide added benefit.
Emily L. Mailey, Neha P. Gothe, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Amanda N. Szabo, Erin A. Olson, Sean P. Mullen, Jason T. Fanning, Robert W. Motl and Edward McAuley
The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 3 different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 min) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N = 311, M age = 71.1) wore an accelerometer for 7 d and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20-, 30-, and 60-min interruption periods. Estimates of wear time, derived using each interruption period, were compared with self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 min) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 min) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults.