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Diversity Characteristics and Experiences of Discrimination in Certified Mental Performance Consultants

Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo, and Sebastian Harenberg

The purpose of the present study was to explore diversity characteristics and experiences of discrimination in certified mental-performance consultants (CMPCs). The results of a questionnaire (N = 260) indicated that CMPCs remain a rather homogeneous population (>80% White, heterosexual, and able-bodied). Female and non-White consultants were significantly more likely to experience discrimination in the field. The findings indicate that minorities remain underrepresented among CMPCs. In addition, the profession is in need of interventional strategies to prevent experiences of discrimination in applied sport psychology.

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As Iron Sharpens Iron? Athletes’ Perspectives of Positional Competition

Sebastian Harenberg, Harold A. Riemer, Erwin Karreman, and Kim Dorsch

The study explored the competition between teammates for playing time (i.e., positional competition) within university team sports from the athletes’ perspective. Sixteen Canadian interuniversity team sport athletes (11 women, 5 men) participated in semistructured interviews. Results revealed that positional competition (a) occurs between players in the same position, (b) is necessary to determine playing time, (c) is an ongoing, omni-present process, and (d) happens under the awareness of the coach. Furthermore, various inputs (by the individual athlete, team, coach), processes (performance-related, information-related), and outcomes (individual, collective) became apparent. Positional competition is a group process that occurs across multiple competitive situations (e.g., practices, games). Future research is needed to clearly define and operationalize it as its own construct.

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Coaches’ Perspectives of Intrateam Competition in High Performance Sport Teams

Sebastian Harenberg, Harold A. Riemer, Erwin Karreman, and Kim D. Dorsch

Competition is a common phenomenon and occurs frequently in sports. In high performance sports, competition takes place not only between teams (interteam competition) but also within a team (intrateam competition). In the intrateam competition, coaches might play a central role because of their power to structure competition within their teams. Yet, there is a lack of research exploring how coaches facilitate this type of competition. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to explore how university-level team sport coaches’ experience, structure and use intrateam competition. Eight full-time Canadian Interuniversity Sports head coaches participated in semistructured interviews. The participants indicated that intrateam competition involves two distinct types of competition: situational and positional competition. While situational competition occurs primarily in practices, positional competition is an ongoing, continual process in which athletes who occupy the same position compete for playing time. The coaches shared important considerations about how to carefully structure and use both types of competition constructively. The study is an original account of intrateam competition as a multifaceted, constructive process within high performance sport teams.

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Exploring the Multidimensional Model of Leadership Through the Lens of Coaches: An Examination of the Relationship Between Personality, Leader Behaviors, and the Coach–Athlete Relationship

Shelby N. Anderson, Sebastian Harenberg, Maggie Nieto, and Justine Vosloo

The Multidimensional Model of Leadership hypothesizes that leader personality characteristics impact leader behaviors, which in turn influence collective and individual outcomes. While the Multidimensional Model of Leadership has received substantial research attention over the past four decades, the full hypothesis including antecedents, throughputs, and outputs has rarely been tested in one study. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to test the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive personality characteristics (i.e., perfectionism and passion), leader behaviors, and the coach–athlete relationship in college coaches. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches (N = 380) completed the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2, the Passion Scale, the Leadership Scale for Sports, and the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that perfectionism and passion accounted for 65% of the variance for leader behaviors. Specifically, adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and passion positively predicted leader behaviors, whereas maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism negatively predicted leader behaviors. Furthermore, leader behaviors explained over half the variance of the coach–athlete relationship. The results provide support for the Multidimensional Model of Leadership from the perspective of sport coaches. Applied implications for coaches and sport psychology practitioners are discussed.

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Self-Reported Depression in Collegiate Athletes: The Effect of Privacy on Symptom Disclosure

Chloe M. Ouellet-Pizer, Sebastian Harenberg, Justine Vosloo, and Barbara B. Meyer

Prevalence studies on depressive symptoms in collegiate athletes have yielded varied estimations, which may be due, in part, to survey administration privacy. However, the influence of survey administration privacy (i.e., anonymous and confidential) on depressive symptom disclosure remains unknown in sport. The purposes of the current study, therefore, were twofold: (a) compare depressive symptoms reported under high- and low-privacy conditions and (b) examine factors associated with underreporting (i.e., social desirability). College athletes (N = 123) were randomly assigned to high- and low-privacy conditions. Results indicated no significant difference, F(1, 120) = 0.59, p = .446, between the prevalence of depressive symptoms reported across conditions when controlling for sex, and no significant correlation between depressive symptoms and social desirability (r = −.01, p = .886). Taken together, results indicated that survey administration privacy did not impact depressive symptom disclosure in the current sample.