The aim of the study was to examine differences in stress and recovery across gender and time (preseason and play-offs) in a sample of amateur basketball players of the Italian league (C division). Fifty amateur basketball players (33 men and 17 women) age 17–30 y (23.5 ± 9.19 y) participated in the study. Twenty-eight athletes (16 men and 12 women) completed the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Sport (RESTQ-Sport) in the preseason phase, after a training period of 21 days, and in the competition phase during the play-off period. Repeated-measures MANOVA showed significant differences by gender and preparation phase. Univariate follow-up ANOVA highlighted differences by gender on physical recovery, sleep quality, and self-efficacy, with higher scores in men. Moreover, differences between preseason and competition phases were shown on emotional stress and fatigue, with higher scores on emotional stress and lower scores on fatigue in the competition phase. These findings suggest that RESTQ-Sport could be a useful tool for coaches to monitor stress/recovery balance in male and female team-sport athletes during different periods of the season.
Stress and Recovery Balance in Amateur Basketball Players: Differences by Gender and Preparation Phase
Selenia di Fronso, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Laura Bortoli, Claudio Robazza, and Maurizio Bertollo
Predicting Changes in Physical Education Teachers’ Behaviors Promoting Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic Using an Integrated Motivational Model
Silvio Maltagliati, Attilio Carraro, Géraldine Escriva-Boulley, Maurizio Bertollo, Damien Tessier, Alessandra Colangelo, Athanasios Papaioannou, Selenia di Fronso, Boris Cheval, Erica Gobbi, and Philippe Sarrazin
Purpose: To identify motivational determinants explaining Physical Education teachers’ behaviors promoting students’ physical activity (PA) amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Nine hundred thirty-one Italian and French teachers completed a questionnaire assessing motivational determinants (self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, perceived ease and usefulness toward digital technologies, engagement at work), their intention and behaviors promoting PA, in reference to before and during the pandemic. Path analyses tested the associations of changes in motivational determinants with changes in intention and behaviors. Results: Increases in autonomous, controlled motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies, and a decrease in amotivation were associated with an increase in the intention to promote PA. In turn, an increase in intention, but also in self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies were paired with an increase in behaviors promoting PA. Conclusion: Implications regarding the commitment of Physical Education teachers to challenging pedagogical situations, such as promoting PA amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, are discussed.
To Focus or Not to Focus: Is Attention on the Core Components of Action Beneficial for Cycling Performance?
Maurizio Bertollo, Selenia di Fronso, Edson Filho, Vito Lamberti, Patrizio Ripari, Victor Machado Reis, Silvia Comani, Laura Bortoli, and Claudio Robazza
We conducted a counterbalanced repeated measure trial to investigate the effect of different internal and external associative strategies on endurance performance. Seventeen college-aged students were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions to test the notion that different attention-performance types (optimal Type 1, functional Type 2, and dysfunctional Type 3) would influence endurance time on a cycling task. Specifically, Type 1 represented an effortless and automatic, “flow-feeling” attentional mode. Type 2 referred to an associative focus directed at core components of the task. Type 3 represented an attentional focus directed at irrelevant components of the task. Participants completed three time-to-exhaustion-tests while reporting their perceived exertion and affective states (arousal and hedonic tone). Results revealed that Type 1 and Type 2 attentional strategies, compared with Type 3 strategy, exerted functional effects on performance, whereas a Type 3 strategy was linked to lower performance, and lower levels of arousal and pleasantness. Applied implications are discussed.