This paper reviews the research findings regarding the force and length changes of the muscle-tendon complex during dynamic human movements, especially those using ultrasonography and computer simulation. The use of ultrasonography demonstrated that the tendinous structures of the muscle-tendon complex are compliant enough to influence the biomechanical behavior (length change, shortening velocity, and so on) of fascicles substantially. It was discussed that the fascicles are a force generator rather than a work generator; the tendinous structures function not only as an energy re-distributor but also as a power amplifier, and the interaction between fascicles and tendinous structures is essential for generating higher joint power outputs during the late pushoff phase in human vertical jumping. This phenomenon could be explained based on the force-length/velocity relationships of each element (contractile and series elastic elements) in the muscle-tendon complex during movements. Through computer simulation using a Hill-type muscle-tendon complex model, the benefit of making a countermovement was examined in relation to the compliance of the muscle-tendon complex and the length ratio between the contractile and series elastic elements. Also, the integral roles of the series elastic element were simulated in a cyclic human heel-raise exercise. It was suggested that the storage and reutilization of elastic energy by the tendinous structures play an important role in enhancing work output and movement efficiency in many sorts of human movements.
Senshi Fukashiro, Dean C. Hay and Akinori Nagano
Akinori Nagano, Taku Komura and Senshi Fukashiro
The two goals of this study were (a) to evaluate the effects of the series elasticity of the muscle tendon complex on an explosive performance that allows a counter movement, and (b) to determine whether or not a counter movement is automatically generated in the optimal explosive activity, using computer simulation. A computer simulation model of the Hill-type muscle tendon complex, which is composed of a contractile element (CE) and a series elastic element (SEE), was constructed. The proximal end of the CE was affixed to a point in the gravitational field, and a massless supporting object was affixed to the distal end of the SEE. An inertia was held on the supporting object. The goal of the explosive activity was to maximize the height reached by the inertia. A variation of the SEE elasticity was examined within the natural range. The optimal pattern of neural activation input was sought through numerical optimization for each value of the SEE elasticity. Two major findings were obtained: (a) As the SEE elasticity increased, the maximal height reached by the inertia increased. This was primarily due to the enhanced force development of the CE. (b) A counter movement was automatically generated for all values of the SEE elasticity through the numerical optimization. It is suggested that it is beneficial to make a counter movement in order to reach a greater jump height, and the effect of making a counter movement increases as the elasticity of the muscle tendon complex increases.
Ryuji Kawamoto, Yusuke Ishige, Koji Watarai and Senshi Fukashiro
The purpose of this study was to test quantitatively the hypothesis that, as runners run along a more sharply curved track, greater torsional moments act on their tibiae. Six male participants were asked to run along a straight track and along counterclockwise curved tracks with turn radii of 15 m (gentle) and 5 m (sharp) at 3.5 m s–1. Data were collected using two high-speed cameras and force platforms. Each participant’s left (corresponding to the inside of the curves) foot and tibia were modeled as a system of coupled rigid bodies. For analysis, net axial moments acting on both ends of the tibia were calculated using free-body analysis. The torsional moment acting on the tibia was determined from the quasi-equilibrium balance of the tibial axial moments based on the assumption that the rate of change of the angular momentum about the tibial axis was negligible. The results showed that the torsional moments, which were in the direction of external rotational loading of the proximal tibiae, increased as the track curvature became sharper. Furthermore, the mean value of the maximum torsional moments, while running on a sharply curved track (28.5 Nm), was significantly higher than the values obtained while running on a straight track (11.0 Nm, p < .01) and on a gently curved track (12.2 Nm, p < .01). In conclusion, the present study has quantitatively confirmed that as runners run along a more sharply curved track, greater torsional moments act on their tibiae. The findings imply that athletes prone to tibial running injuries such as stress fractures should avoid repetitive running on sharply curved paths.
Akinori Nagano, Senshi Fukashiro and Taku Komura
Contribution of series elasticity of the human mm. triceps surae in cyclic heel-raise exercise (similar to hopping but the feet do not leave the floor) was examined via computer modeling and simulation. A two-dimensional skeletal model of the human body was constructed. Upright posture was maintained throughout the simulation to prevent the model from falling. A mathematical representation of the mm. triceps surae was implemented in the skeletal model. The muscle was activated by the neural activation input signal with a time resolution of 0.050 sec. Cyclic heel-raise exercises of cycle duration ranging from 0.300 sec to 0.900 sec, corresponding to the motion frequency of 200 to 66.7 cycles/min, were generated using an optimization approach. The goal of the numerical optimization was to generate cyclic motions with as much range of motion as possible. As a result, realistic heel-raise motions were generated with the range of motion between 0.0023 m (cycle duration = 0.300 sec) and 0.0414 m (cycle duration = 0.900 sec). It was found that contribution of the series elasticity in positive mechanical work output of the muscle-tendon complex during the pushoff phase (from the lowest position to the termination of a cycle) increased as motion frequency increased (3% at 66.7 cycles/min to 47% at 200 cycles/min). Relatively higher muscle activation was found during the downward moving phase when the motion frequency was higher. These tendencies are consistent with the findings reported in preceding studies involving experimental animals as well as human participants. It is suggested that series elasticity plays an integral role in the generation of cyclic human motions.
Shohei Shibata, Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka and Senshi Fukashiro
This study had two objectives: (a) revealing the difference in finger segments between the conventional and finger models during aimed throwing and (b) examining the central nervous system’s timing control between the wrist torque and finger torque. Participants were seven baseball players. Finger kinetics was calculated by an inverse dynamics method. In the conventional model, wrist flexion torque was smaller than that in the finger model because of the error in ball position approximation. The maximal correlation coefficient between the wrist torque and finger torque was high (r = .85 ± .10), and the time lag at maximal correlation coefficient was small (t = 0.36 ± 3.02 ms). The small timing delay between the wrist torque and finger torque greatly influenced ball trajectory. We conclude that, to stabilize release timing, the central nervous system synchronized the wrist torque and finger torque by feed-forward adjustments.
Akinori Nagano, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Dean Charles Hay and Senshi Fukashiro
The purpose of this study was to test whether a light finger touch on one’s own body (upper legs) reduces postural sway. Ten healthy males participated. In the first part of the study, the participants stood upright with their eyes closed on a force platform while ground reaction force data were collected. Two conditions differing in the placement of the arms and fingers were tested. In the no-touch condition, the participants kept their hands in loose fists. In the finger-touch condition, the participants lightly touched the lateral sides of the upper legs with all fingers. Postural sway measures were calculated from the ground reaction force data. In the second part of the study, the participants stood upright on a pneumatic balance disk while ground reaction force data were collected. Experimental and measurement protocols were identical to those used in the first part of the study. The results showed that light finger touch on the upper legs significantly reduced postural sway on the balance disk up to ~7%. The data from this study suggest that decreased postural sway due to finger contact may improve balance control during other standing tasks.
Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Yoshiaki Iida, Dean C. Hay and Senshi Fukashiro
Lateral quickness is a crucial component of many sports. However, biomechanical factors that contribute to quickness in lateral movements have not been understood well. Thus, the purpose of this study was to quantify 3-dimensional kinetics of hip, knee, and ankle joints in side steps to understand the function of lower extremity muscle groups. Side steps at nine different distances were performed by nine male subjects. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded, and net joint torque and work were calculated by a standard inverse-dynamics method. Extension torques and work done at hip, knee, and ankle joints contributed substantially to the changes in side step distances. On the other hand, hip abduction work was not as sensitive to the changes in the side step distances. The main roles of hip abduction torque and work were to accelerate the center of mass laterally in the earlier phase of the movement and to keep the trunk upright, but not to generate large power for propulsion.
Kentaro Chino, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Kai Kobayashi, Yusuke Miyoshi, Toshiaki Oda, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Senshi Fukashiro and Yasuo Kawakami
To investigate the relationship between fascicle behavior and joint torque, the fascicle behavior of the triceps surae during isometric and eccentric (30 and 60 deg/s) plantar flexion by maximal voluntary and submaximal electrical activation (MVA and SEA) was measured by real-time ultrasonography. Eccentric torque at 30 and 60 deg/s was significantly higher than isometric torque under SEA, but not under MVA. However, fascicle length did not significantly differ between isometric and eccentric trials under either condition. Therefore, the difference in developed torque by MVA and SEA cannot be explained by fascicle behavior. Under both MVA and SEA conditions, eccentric torque at 30 and 60 deg/s was equivalent. Similarly, fascicle lengthening velocities at 30 and 60deg/s did not show any significant difference. Such fascicle behavior can be attributed to the influence of tendinous tissue and pennation angle, and lead to a lack of increase in eccentric torque with increasing angular velocity.