The purpose was to compute the instantaneous contributions of anatomical rotations of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, and hand to ball speed and to quantify the three-dimensional angular kinematics of the trunk and throwing arm during water polo penalty throws. The largest contributors to predicted ball speed |(vB)'| at release were forearm extension and a counterclockwise twisting rotation of the trunk. Upper arm internal rotation contribution to |(vB)'| at release was highly variable and exhibited a significant inverse relationship with the upper arm horizontal adduction contribution to |(vB)'| at release (r = −.70). Subjects with large internal rotation contributions to |(vB)'| tended to have the upper arm in positions of less external rotation, but internally rotating at a faster rate, at release. Subjects with large upper arm horizontal adduction contributions to |(vB)'| exhibited a trend for faster rates of upper arm horizontal adduction and positions of increased forearm pronation at release. Findings suggest that a continuum of technique styles are used by water polo players to produce ball speed at release.