The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of coaching and coach education in Spain. Particular emphasis is placed on legislative evolution of the qualifications of sport coaches and the repercussions it has had on the sport and education system. The formal training of sport coaches in Spain has undergone many legislative changes since the promulgation of the Constitution in 1978. This period of legislative changes has been long and has not ended as a single process. Transitory provisions are still being used to impart and approve training courses. The changes adopted have served to introduce sport teaching into the Spanish education system as a special education system; and to homogenize the study plans, the requisites for teachers who give the courses and the administrative procedures, among the different sport disciplines. The equalization of professional sport qualifications at the European level is now more feasible.
Sebastián Feu, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sergio Ibáñez
Sergio J. Ibáñez, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sebastián Feu
The purpose of this study was to analyze scientific production on the topic of sport coaches in Spain, using doctoral theses included in the Spanish Ordered Theses TESEO database. Productivity was analyzed based on 17 variables grouped into contextual information, object of study, classification criteria, research design and research procedure. Sixty indexed theses were studied from the time period of 1996 to 2017, showing a progressive growth of scientific production in theses during this time. The role of women in the direction and writing of theses still represents a minority. The majority of theses are classified in the scientific disciplines of Sport Pedagogy and Exercise Psychology. The results show that quantitative methodological approaches predominate with descriptive research on populations using surveys or systematic observation. The most commonly used type of sampling was intentional with a questionnaire to collect data. The results show the profile of this research topic, the methodological approach, and the research tendencies as well as underlining the basic lines for development.
José Pino-Ortega, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona, Alejandro Bastida-Castillo, Javier García-Rubio and Sergio J. Ibáñez
Objectives: (1) To describe the fast Fourier transform (FFT) multijoint as monopodal postural stability measurement in well-trained athletes, (2) to compare the within-subject FFT between laterality, joints, and body segments, and (3) to establish the within- and between-subject relationship between joints. Methods: Twelve national-level basketball players participated voluntarily in this investigation. The participants performed two 60-second repetitions of a monopodal stability test (1 repetition with each lower limb), separated by 3 minutes of active recovery. All tests were recorded by 4 WIMU PRO™ inertial devices located on the ankle, knee, lumbar spine, and thoracic spine. The main variable was total acceleration, where the FFT was applied. Results: The higher instability results were found in the ankle and in the nondominant lower limb (dominant = 1.131 [0.122] a.u. (arbitrary units); nondominant = 1.141 [0.172] a.u). In the body segment analysis, the greater percentage of differences (%diff) were shown between lumbar spine and knee in the dominant (%diff = −2.989%; d = 0.87) and nondominant (%diff = −3.243%; d = 0.90) lower limb. Finally, very large between-subjects variability was found in all joints and body segments. Conclusions: The described protocol is proposed for monopodal postural stability assessment, being useful to provide information about the stability of joints and the body segment between joints. Besides, a within-subject analysis is recommended, and the FFT calculation will enable a linear analysis of each test.
Alberto Pardo-Ibáñez, Jose L. Bermejo, Sergio Gandia, Julien Maitre, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Isaac Estevan and Xavier Garcia-Masso
A cross-sectional, prospective, between-subjects design was used in this study to establish the differences in sensory reweighting of postural control among different ages during adolescence. A total of 153 adolescents (five age groups; 13–17 years old) performed bipedal standing in three sensory conditions (i.e., with visual restriction, vestibular disturbance, and proprioceptive disturbance). Center of pressure displacement signals were measured in mediolateral and anteroposterior directions to characterize reweighting in the sensory system in static postural control when sensory information is disturbed or restricted during adolescent growth. The results indicate a development of postural control, showing large differences between subjects of 13–14 years old and older adolescents. A critical change was found in sensory reweighting during bipedal stance with disturbance of proprioceptive information at 15 years old. Adolescents of 13–14 years old showed less postural control and performance than older adolescents during the disturbance of proprioceptive information. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the visual system achieves its development around 15–16 years old. In conclusion, this research suggests that a difference of sensory reweighting under this type of sensorial condition and sensory reweight systems would seem to achieve stabilization at the age of 15.