Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) refers to acts by members of an organization that are not formally required, but that contribute to the effective functioning of the organization. The current study investigated the types of OCB in which athletes engage as well as athletes’ perceptions about the nature of OCB in sport. Through qualitative interviews with current and former college athletes, the investigators found that athletes engage in a wide variety of OCB, some of which appears to be unique to the context of sport. With respect to the nature of OCB in sport, participants identified the existence of a substantial “gray area” regarding what is and is not required of athletes. Notably, the pressures that can coerce people to engage in “voluntary” activities may be particularly strong in sport. Ultimately, the current study serves a pioneering role in helping to illustrate the unique nature of OCB in sport.
Adam Love and Seungmo Kim
Soonhwan Lee, Seungmo Kim and Adam Love
Many members of the LGBT community have viewed the Gay Games as an opportunity to challenge dominant ideologies concerning sexuality and sport participation. Members of the mass media, however, play a potentially important role in how the event is perceived by the general public. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to examine how the Gay Games have been framed in newspaper coverage. A total of 646 articles published in the United States covering the eight Gay Games events held during the 32-year period of 1980–2012 were analyzed in terms of three aspects of framing: (a) the types of issues highlighted, (b) the sources of information cited, and (c) the manner in which either episodic or thematic narratives were employed. The results of the current study revealed that issues of identity and optimism were most commonly highlighted, LGBT participants were most frequently cited as sources of information, and thematic framing was most commonly employed in newspaper coverage of the Gay Games.