Girls’ lacrosse participation and head injury rates have increased within the past decade. In response, optional headgear was implemented following the recently developed ASTM International lacrosse headgear performance standards. It remains unknown how lacrosse headgear responds to blunt impacts after use. Our purpose was to compare the peak linear acceleration between girls’ lacrosse headgear conditions (pristine and used) during blunt impacts. Pristine headgear (n = 10) were tested in their original condition and used headgear (n = 10) were worn for an entire competitive season. A Cadex Monorail Impactor impacted all headgear following ASTM standards (F1446-15b, F2220-15, and F3137-15) in the required testing locations. A 2 × 7 repeated-measures analysis of variance compared peak linear acceleration among headgear conditions and impact locations with a simple effects analysis planned comparison. There was no difference between headgear conditions for peak linear acceleration (pristine: 47.12 [13.92] g; used: 46.62 [14.84] g; F = 2.11, P > .05). A main effect for impact location (F = 983.52, P < .01), and an interaction effect of condition and impact location (F = 12.79, P < .01) were observed. All headgear, regardless of condition, met the ASTM performance standard. This suggests that headgear performance may not degrade subsequent to a single season of high school girls’ lacrosse.
Patricia M. Kelshaw, Trenton E. Gould, Mark Jesunathadas, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell, Elizabeth D. Edwards and Shane V. Caswell
Patricia Kelshaw, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell and Shane V. Caswell
A growing topic in research is that of cervical strength to potentially mitigate head impact kinematics (HIK) and concussion risk. The purpose of this research was two-fold: (a) Assess the effects of isometric cervical muscle strength (ICMS) on HIK in high school boys’ lacrosse, and (b) investigate the relationship between cervical anthropometrics and ICMS, to create greater feasibility to approximate ICMS. All participants wore accelerometers during the season, and had their ICMS measured. No significant differences existed among ICMS classifications and HIK measures (p > .05). Cervical circumference showed a positive, moderately strong relationship with ICMS in extension (r = .63, p = .02). Our findings do not support previous research that has identified ICMS as a modifiable risk factor for mitigating HIK.
Shane V. Caswell, Matthew York, Jatin P. Ambegaonkar, Amanda M. Caswell and Nelson Cortes
Zachary Y. Kerr, Andrew E. Lincoln, Shane V. Caswell, David A. Klossner, Nina Walker and Thomas P. Dompier
Context: Participation in collegiate women’s lacrosse has increased dramatically, but little recent epidemiological data exists regarding injuries. Objective: Describe the epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women’s lacrosse injuries during the 2009–10 through 2014–15 academic years. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 40 women’s lacrosse programs providing 83 team-seasons of data. Patients or Other Participants: Collegiate women’s lacrosse student-athletes. Intervention: Women’s lacrosse data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: Injury rates; injury rate ratios; and injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and injury mechanism were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Time loss (TL) injuries resulted in participation restriction time of at least 24 hours. Nontime loss (NTL) injuries resulted in participation restriction time under 24 hours. Results: There were 705 TL and NTL women’s lacrosse injuries, resulting in an injury rate of 4.93/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs; 95% CI: 4.57–5.30). The TL and NTL injury rates were 2.18/1000 AE (95% CI: 1.93–2.42) and 2.64/1000 AE (95% CI: 2.37–2.90), respectively. Most injuries were to the lower extremity (competition: 64.4%; practice: 71.2%). Most injuries in competition were sprains (26.0%), contusions (19.6%), and strains (19.2%); most injuries in practice were strains (21.4%), sprains (18.1%), and inflammatory conditions (15.8%). Concussions comprised the highest proportion of head/face injuries (competition: 82.1%; practice: 54.5%). No eye injuries were reported. The highest proportion of injuries were player contact (27.4%) in competitions and noncontact (32.1%) in practices. Contact with the ball and stick comprised 21.5% of competition and 14.0% of practice injuries. Conclusions: This study is the most robust assessment of collegiate women’s lacrosse injuries to date, utilizing surveillance data that includes both TL and NTL injuries. Over half of all injuries were NTL; inclusion of such injuries further highlights the breadth of injuries managed by team medical staff.