The Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) is a whole-school model for increasing opportunities throughout the school day for access to physical activity (PA). Opportunities for PA during the school day are an important part of the field of kinesiology and critical to individuals’ developing patterns of lifetime PA. Guided by Guskey’s theory of teacher change, this scoping literature review summarizes findings from 29 studies that collected data concerning the perceptions of stakeholders in a CSPAP. Teachers’ lifelong learning process is the focus, including K-12 classroom and physical education teachers and students, as well as current preservice classroom and physical education teacher education students and education faculty at teacher-preparation institutions. Positive perceptions of CSPAP programs were reported by all stakeholder groups. Although studies often include barriers to implementation, the stakeholders generally shared strategies to overcoming these and focused on benefits to the school setting that the researchers explained in their discussions.
Shannon C. Mulhearn, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, and Collin Webster
Hyeonho Yu, Pamela H. Kulinna, and Shannon C. Mulhearn
Background: Environmental provisions can boost students’ discretionary participation in physical activity (PA) during lunchtime at school. This study investigated the effectiveness of providing PA equipment as an environmental intervention on middle school students’ PA levels and stakeholders’ perceptions of the effectiveness of equipment provisions during school lunch recess. Methods: A baseline–intervention research design was used in this study with a first baseline phase followed by an intervention phase (ie, equipment provision phase). A total of 514 students at 2 middle schools (school 1 and school 2) in a rural area of the western United States were observed directly using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth instrument. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders. Paired-sample t tests and visual analysis were conducted to explore differences in PA levels by gender, and common comparison (with trustworthiness measures) was used with the interview data. Results: The overall percentage of moderate to vigorous PA levels was increased in both schools (ranging from 8.0% to 24.0%). In school 2, there was a significant difference in seventh- and eighth-grade students’ moderate to vigorous PA levels from the baseline. Three major themes were identified: (1) unmotivated, (2) unequipped, and (3) unquestionable changes (with students becoming more active). Conclusions: Environmental supports (access, equipment, and supervision) significantly and positively influenced middle school students’ lunchtime PA levels.
Kahyun Nam, Pamela H. Kulinna, Shannon C. Mulhearn, Hyeonho Yu, Janelle M. Griffo, and Aaron J. Mason
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perspective of school personnel regarding the impact of social–ecological factors and to identify salient ways to support school personnel in sustaining Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Methods: In this mixed-methods longitudinal study, stakeholders were surveyed at two points in time (n = 67) and interviewed in semistructured interviews (n = 41) using card sorting to understand the influence of social–ecological factors on Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs sustainability. Results: Across time, the perceived influence of social–ecological levels varied considerably: individual, t(78.86) = −4.22, p < .001, d = 0.52, interpersonal, t(88.20) = −2.32, p = .023, d = 0.09, organizational, t(80.56) = −2.38, p = .02, d = 0.29, and the community factor, t(83.24) = −3.05, p = .003, d = 0.30. Stakeholders rated ecological levels from greatest to least influential as individual, organizational, interpersonal, community, and policy. Themes within levels provided a deeper understanding of these influences. Conclusion: To successfully sustain Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in schools, balanced support from all social–ecological levels may be needed.
Shannon C. Mulhearn, Hyeonho Yu, Hans van der Mars, Janelle M. Griffo, and Pamela H. Kulinna
Purpose: Grounded in the behavioral ecological model, and to address a lack of park space, this study looked at community members’ use of public high school physical activity (PA) facilities during nonschool hours while considering the effects of seasonality. Method: Data included 3,959 observation sweeps across 19 public high school campuses over 1 year (all seasons) in Arizona. Results: Differences in contextual supports were evident between seasons, with facilities being more accessible, usable, and lighted in spring than summer or fall. Accessible facilities were most often outside (68.6% of the time). The highest frequency of sedentary behavior was in summer. Conclusion: The present study expands our understanding about the influence of seasonality as related to community access to PA facilities. During times of extreme temperatures, it may be beneficial to find ways to make indoor PA facilities more accessible to support increased PA levels of community members.