To examine the relationship between anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in unanticipated cutting and decelerating. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected on 11 females (22  y, 1.67 [0.08] m, and 68.5 [9.8] kg) during 2 unanticipated tasks. Paired samples t tests were performed to compare dependent variables between tasks. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to analyze the relationship between peak internal knee adduction moment and peak anterior tibial shear force (ASF) during 2 unanticipated tasks. Significantly greater knee abduction angles, peak knee adduction moments, and peak ASFs were observed during cutting (P ≤ .05). A strong positive correlation existed between decelerating ASF and cutting ASF (ρ = .67), while correlations between decelerating knee adduction moment and cutting knee adduction moment and decelerating ASF and cutting knee adduction moment were not significant. In situations where time management is a necessity and only one task can be evaluated, it may be more appropriate to utilize an unanticipated cutting task rather than an unanticipated deceleration task because of the increased knee adduction moment and ASF. These data can help future clinicians in better designing more effective anterior cruciate ligament injury risk screening methods.
Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl
Stephanie Chester, Audrey Zucker-Levin, Daniel A. Melcher, Shelby A. Peel, Richard J. Bloomer and Max R. Paquette
The purpose of this study was to compare knee and hip joint kinematics previously associated with anterior knee pain and metabolic cost among conditions including treadmill running (TR), standard elliptical (SE), and lateral elliptical (LE) in healthy runners. Joint kinematics and metabolic parameters of 16 runners were collected during all 3 modalities using motion capture and a metabolic system, respectively. Sagittal knee range of motion (ROM) was greater in LE (P < .001) and SE (P < .001) compared with TR. Frontal and transverse plane hip ROM were greater in LE compared with SE (P < .001) and TR (P < .001). Contralateral pelvic drop ROM was smaller in SE compared with TR (P = .002) and LE (P = .005). Similar oxygen consumption was found during LE and TR (P = .39), but LE (P < .001) and TR (P < .001) required greater oxygen consumption than SE. Although LE yields similar metabolic cost to TR and produces hip kinematics that may help strengthen hip abductors, greater knee flexion and abduction during LE may increase symptoms in runners with anterior knee pain. The findings suggest that research on the implications of elliptical exercise for injured runners is needed.