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Sharon L. Olson, Shu-Shi Chen and Ching-Yi Wang

Objective:

To determine exercise efficacy in improving dynamic balance in community-dwelling elderly with a fall history.

Methods:

Thirty-five participants were randomly assigned to a treatment (TG; n = 19, 77 ± 7 yr) or control group (CG; n = 16, 75 ± 8 yr). The TG received an individualized home exercise program, and the CG received phone calls twice per week for 12 weeks. Participants’ dynamic-balance abilities— directional control (DC), endpoint excursion (EE), maximum excursion (ME), reaction time (RT), and movement velocity (MV)—were measured using the Balance Master at 75% limits of stability. Functional reach (FR) was also measured.

Results:

At 12 weeks the TG demonstrated significant improvements in DC (p < .0025), EE (p < .0005), and ME (p < .0005), but the CG did not. No significant group differences were found for MV, RT, or FR.

Conclusions:

Excursion distances and directional control improved but not reaction time, suggesting that exercises requiring quick responses may be needed.

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Wei-Jang Yen, Yao-Lung Kuo, Li-Chieh Kuo, Shu-Min Chen, Ta-Shen Kuan and Hsiu-Yun Hsu

To investigate how sensory symptoms impact the motor control of hands, in this study we examined the differences in conventional sensibility assessments and pinch force control in the pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and healthy controls. CTS patients (n = 82) with 122 affected hands and an equal number of control subjects were recruited to participate in the threshold, discrimination, and PHUA tests. The patients showed significantly poorer hand sensibility and lower efficiency of force adjustment in the PHUA test as compared with the control subjects. Baseline pinch strength and the percentage of maximal pinch strength for the PHUA were significantly higher for the subgroup of sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of <16 μV than for the subgroup of SNAP of3 16 μV. Using a PHUA perspective to analyze the efficiency of force-adjustment could assist the clinical detection of sensory nerve dysfunction.

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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Caroline S. Blaum, Tisha Moore, Roger Brown, Andrzej Galecki, Debra Strasburg, Shu Chen and Neil B. Alexander

Background: Diabetes-related disability occurs in approximately two-thirds of older adults with diabetes and is associated with loss of independence, increased health care resource utilization, and sedentary lifestyle. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of a center-based functional circuit exercise training intervention followed by a 10-week customized home-based program in improving mobility function in sedentary older adults with diabetes. Methods: Participants (n = 111; mean age 70.5 [7.1] y; mean body mass index 32.7 [5.9] kg/m2) were randomized to either a moderate-intensity functional circuit training (FCT) plus 10-week home program to optimize physical activity (FCT-PA) primary intervention or one of 2 comparison groups (FCT plus health education [FCT-HE] or flexibility and toning plus health education [FT-HE]). Results: Compared with FT-HE, FCT-PA improvements in comfortable gait speed of 0.1 m/s (P < .05) and 6-minute walk of 80 ft were consistent with estimates of clinically meaningful change. At 20 weeks, controlling for 10-week outcomes, improvements were found between groups for comfortable gait speed (FCT-PA vs FT-HE and FCT-HE vs FT-HE) and 6-minute walk (FCT-PA vs FCT-HE). Conclusions: Functional exercise training can improve mobility in overweight/obese older adults with diabetes and related comorbidities. Future studies should evaluate intervention sustainability and adaptations for those with more severe mobility impairments.

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Cheng-Hsiu Lai, Yin-Lan Tsai, Shih-Wei Chou, Fon-Chin Lin, Chung-Yu Chen, Shu-Man Chen, Wen-Chih Lee, Yi-Hung Liao and Chia-Hua Kuo

The majority of schoolchildren with asthma do not participate in regular physical activity due to a risk of exercise-induced asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the glycemic characteristic of Taiwanese children with persistent asthma. The current study found that children with asthma (age 10.4 ± 0.4 years) exhibited lower whole-body insulin sensitivity and poorer physical fitness compared to children without asthma (age 10.9 ± 0.6 years). Postprandial glucose and insulin, BMI, and waist circumference of the children with asthma were greater than those of the healthy children. Four patients with asthma regularly participating in a permissible amount of physical activity exhibited lower postprandial glucose and insulin levels compared to those of the rest of the children with asthma who were totally lacking physical activity. A permissible amount of physical activity appears to be beneficial for children with asthma in the prevention of the early onset of insulin resistance.

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Jie Liang, Shuang-Shuang Tian, Nan Qiao, Cong Wang, Jian-Jun Huang, Chen-Ming Sun, Hai-Xia Zhang, Yan Cui, Hui Wang, Xiao-Meng Liu, Shu-Hong Xu, Hongwei Guan and Tong Wang

Objective:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China.

Method:

The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results:

A total of 3076 males aged 18–65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633–0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516–0.762).

Conclusions:

Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.