Social media have been increasingly used by sports organizations to communicate with the public. This study explored the Twitter-using practices of National Basketball Association (NBA) clubs (N = 30) in the U.S. in building relationships with their fans during the 2013–14 season. Specifically, it focused on how these clubs used Twitter to build professional, personal, and community relationships through a content analysis of 5,561 tweets on their official Twitter sites. The results suggested that NBA clubs tended to use social media to develop professional relationships with their publics via sharing information and promoting products. There were significant relationships between relationship dimensions and the number of retweets and favorites from Twitter followers. Sports organizations should use social media effectively to strengthen the professional, personal, and community relationships with their publics.
Shuhua Zhou, Jie Xu and Yinjiao Ye
This article first explicates the concept of sports enjoyment and then reviews the literature on the many facets of sports commentary regarding its general content and effects. An experimental study was designed to test whether complimentary or conflicting commentary, as well as game knowledge, and playing experience contributed to game enjoyment, perceived liking of the commentary, and perceived action in the game. Results partially supported the hypotheses. Specifically, commentary type had a significant impact on viewers’ liking of the commentary but had no impact on game enjoyment or perceived action in the game, game knowledge increased game enjoyment but had no impact on the other two dependent variables, and playing experience had a positive impact on perceived action in the game but had no impact on the other two variables. Implications are discussed.
Xin Zhong, Shuhua Zhou and Guosong Shao
This article moves away from content-oriented studies on Olympics coverage by focusing on the producers of Olympic images. The study first explicates the concept of professionalism and the objectives of Olympics coverage. A survey questionnaire was designed accordingly to measure a sample of the Chinese professionals who were part of the production team of the international TV signal for the Beijing Olympics. Results indicated that the production professionals were well prepared and were in line with Olympic ideals. Less clear-cut were the concepts of motion and emotion in Olympic coverage. Implications are discussed.